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2013 NATIONAL CONFERENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION“ReAksyon: Rethink, Reduce, Reform … AkoangSolusyon” (Investing in Philippine Development Through Effective Public Administration)The Office of the Vice President for Research, Extension, Planning and Development (OVPRED) throughInstitute of Social Sciences and Development (ISSD),College of Public Administration and Governance (CPAG)Circle of Public Administration and Governance Students (CPAGS)

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The Local Government Operations Officers’ Assessment on the Implementation of the   Decentralization Policy of Republic No. 7160  by Christopher F. Bueno, Ph.D. UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN PHILIPPINESUNESCO Heritage City of Vigan

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Prelude of Public Administration Research

( Local Governance)

Boosting the Positive Image of the Country

“The Philippines is no longer the sick man of East Asia, but the rising tiger. There is macroeconomic stability, and the fiscal situation of the government is sound and improving. The fight against corruption is being waged with determination and it is paying off. Transparency is improving everywhere in the Philippines”

(The World Bank Country Director MotooKonishi for the Philippines at the closing of the 2013 Philippine Development Forum at the Marco Polo Hotel )

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2013 NATIONAL CONFERENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

In consonance to the prescription of joining the positive perception of the World Bank as the “Rising Tiger Economy in Asia ”...

Conference Theme :

“ReAksyon: Rethink, Reduce, Reform … AkoangSolusyon” (Investing in Philippine Development Through Effective Public Administration)

The public administration research entitled “ The LGOOs’ Assessment on the Implementation of the Decentralization Policy of Republic Act No. 7160” provides us the substantial answer to the conference theme on the “ Rising Tiger Economy of Asia in Local Governance"

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RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • This study utilized the descriptive research, documentary analysis, focused group discussions and the e-report of the Local Government Performance Monitoring System (LPGMS) on triangulation analysis to provide a substantial and comprehensive findings relevant to decentralization policy of Republic Act No. 7160 otherwise known as the “Local Government Code of 1991”
  • The key respondents of the study were the Local Government Operations Officers (with majority plantilla positions of LGOO V ) to answer the descriptive questionnaire as to the effectiveness and responsiveness of the decentralization policy in the delivery of basic services with the end goal of improving the quality of life of the people in the municipality.
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The provision of Section 17, Book 1 of this Act served as the basis of the decentralization assessment along the:

  • (1) The basic services and facilities for the improvement of quality life in the municipality; and
  • (2) The LGU organizational mechanisms and national program/projects that defined the role of the Chief Executive Officers (Mayors), SangguniangBayan, and inter-government agencies collaborations.
  • The comparative analysis of the decentralization gaps provided the descriptive analysis with triangulation approach and correlation study as to the LGOO profile and revenue generation to analyze the relationship with the effectiveness and responsiveness of the delivery of basic services in the LGU.
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SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS:

The PROFILE OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS OFFICERS (LGOOs)

  • The majority of the LGOO respondents were with the age 51-60 (37.50 percent) followed by age 41-50 (29.20 percent) . There were LGOO respondents with young age 21 -30 (33.30 percent) to assess the state of local governance in this study.
  • Majority of them were female respondents ( 62.50 percent). The half of the LGOO respondents ( 50 percent) had length of service of 16 years and above wthplantilla position of LGOO 5 while the other three (3) respondents were LGOO 1.
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Most of the LGOO respondents were assigned in the 4th class municipalities (41.68 percent) including the 3rd class and 5th class municipalities (with 20.83 percent) equivalent to 83.33 percent in this study.

  • More than half of the municipalities (59.34 percent) received budgetary allocation of the Internal Revenue Allotments (IRA) were within the range of 41-50 million pesos and 21- 30 million pesos while 29.67 percent receive 31-40 million pesos.
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Most of the local sources were within the range below 2 million pesos ( 62.50 percent).

  • However, the LGUs of Ilocos Sur received the other sources of revenues in Republic Act No. 7171 with more than half of the LGU with the staggering amount of 36-40 million pesos for four (4) municipalities ; 41-45 million pesos for two municipalities; 46-55 million pesos for two municipalities and 60 million pesos and above for the three municipalities. The rest of the municipalities receive below 25 million pesos.
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HEALTH SERVICES

Section 17 for a municipality (iii) on the basic services and facilities subject to the provisions of Title Five, Book I of Republic Act No. 7160, health services which included the implementation of programs and projects on primary health care, maternal and child care, and communicable and non-communicable disease control services, access to secondary and tertiary health services, purchase of medicines, medical supplies, and equipment needed to carry out the services

  • There was a high level of effectiveness and responsiveness in the primary health care and maternal and child health care (X-4.04).
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These are the basic health services provided in the LGU :

(1) maternal deliveries ;

(2) growth monitoring;

(3) consultation and treatment;

(4) expanded program on Immunization

(BCG,OPV,DPT,HEPA B, TT, Measles);

(5) nutrition and operation timbang including

micronutrients supplement ( Vt. A., Iodine and

Ferrussulfate), deworming;

(6) national tuberculosis program;

(7) family planning program; and

(8) malaria, dengue and acute respiratory program.

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It followed the same high level of performance in social governance along the health services in 2011 that had excellent performance 20.83 percent ( 5 municipalities) and high rating of 54.17 percent ( 12 municipalities)

.

  • Furthermore, the presence of the functional Rural Health Units (with standards and criteria set by the Department of Health) has local allocation for public health purposes employing physicians, nurses and other health personnel.
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The areas of improvement were identified :

  • Improve the primary health care or basic services or curative services ( Rank 1: 41.67 percent or 10 municipalities)
  • Mobilize the Local Health Board ( Rank 2: 20.83 percent or 5 municipalities)
  • Innovate. Mobilize. Mission. Provide health to indigent families. If latter is expensive try promoting food supplements like vitamins, (Rank 3: 4.67 percent or 1 municipality)
  • Improve maternal care services ( Rank 3:4.67 or 1 municipality)
  • Improve the quality of child care services ( Rank 3: 4.67 or 1 municipality)
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Although, it was highly effective and responsive for the communicable and non-communicable diseases (X 3.76) the medical viability was limited to primary health care for maternal and child care.

  • The critical area of research analysis in this area is the deadly diseases that affected the majority of poor people that reduces the Human Development Index in life expectancy in the disease occurrence of tuberculosis, hypertension, cancer, hepatitis, dengue, and other diseases that respond to high user medical fees in the medical treatment.
  • The medical support services may not respond to the primary health services of the LGU. It must be noted that access to secondary and tertiary health services (X- 3.00) may not respond well to this provision as millions of investments.
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Although, it is highly effective and responsive for the communicable and non-communicable diseases (X 3.76) the medical viability is limited to primary health care for maternal and child care.

  • The critical area of research analysis in this area is the deadly diseases that affected the majority of poor people that reduces the Human Development Index in life expectancy in the disease occurrence of tuberculosis, hypertension, cancer, hepatitis, dengue, and other diseases that respond to high user medical fees in the medical treatment.
  • The medical support services may not respond to the primary health services of the LGU. It must be noted that access to secondary and tertiary health services (X- 3.00) may not respond well to this provision as millions of investments.
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The Private- Public Partnership (PPP) for secondary and tertiary health services may not be viable for 3rd and 4th class municipalities as to its medical investment and demand analysis unless there is a presence of the sustained expansion of commercial activities in locality.

SOCIAL WELFARE

(Section 17-iv) Social welfare services which include programs and projects on child and youth welfare, family and community welfare, women's welfare, welfare  of the elderly and disabled persons; community-based rehabilitation programs for vagrants, beggars, street children, scavengers, juvenile delinquents, and victims of drug abuse; livelihood and other pro-poor projects; nutrition services; and family planning services;

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It is high performance (Rank 3: X-3.63) but no specific LGPMS indicators in social governance to triangulate the result in order to review the result of the study. In the LGU accomplishment reports provide specific functions and responsibilities reflective in social welfare development that the LGOO has tangible observation to have high assessment in this area:

  • The implementation of the day care service in the barangays in support of the provision of the early childhood care and development for pre-school as of 2011.
  • The supervision of special projects funded by national government agency (DSWD) particularly the PantawidPamilyang Filipino Program that became functionally distributed social justice mechanism in the LGU.
  • The Philhealth for local income family and the referral of clients in the PCSO.
  • The shelter repair and distribution of relief goods after occurrence of disaster.
  • The aid to individual in crisis condition of solo parents, children /youth, women and elderly.
  • The implementation of national laws in support of senior citizens.
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PEACE, SECURITY AND DISASTER MANAGMENT

It is high performance in social governance along peace, security and disaster management of 54.17 percent (12 municipalities). However, the areas of improvement were identified :

  • Ensure an annual financial allocation to the KatarungangPambarangay. The Local Government Code mandates the community peace/harmony and solidarity. ( Rank 1: 54.67 percent or 13 municipalities)
  • Strengthen the Peace and Order Council and the Local Council for the Protection of children. There are lot of creative ways to achieve such status- for a start ensue the provision of annual financial support to peace and order and public safety initiatives. ( Rank 2: 45.68 percent or 11 municipalities)
  • Strengthen the Local Disaster Coordinating Council ( Rank 3 : 37.50 or 9 municipalities)
  • Enhance Local Government Unit to manage risks of disasters, including relief, other associated services and rehabilitation. ( Rank 4 : 8.33 or 2 municipalities)
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ON EDUCATION

It is high performance in social governance along education services with one (1) municipality rated as excellent and 11 municipalities rated high, however 5 municipalities with a rating of fair and 1 municipality with a rating low. These are the areas of improvement identified in Local Government Monitoring System :

  • Establish a scholarship. It is the essence of public service ( Rank 1 : 50 percent or 12 municipalities)
  • Invest the Special Education Fund in actions that improve the quality of the human capital : construction, repairs or maintenance of school buildings; extension classes and extension teachers; and educational research. ( Rank 2: 37.50 percent or 9 municipalities)
  • Establish or improve the quality of the Alternative Learning System (Rank 2: 37.50 percent and 9 municipalities)
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The Comparative Analysis on the Responsiveness of the Executive Official (EO), SangguniangBayan (SB) and National Programs (NP) in the Delivery of Basic Services

1. The Community Based-Forestry consistently rank as one of lowest level of responsiveness national program (Rank 6), sangguniangbayan (Rank7) and executive official (rank 9).

  • Generally, the LGOOs assessment may come to the idea of the program becomes a “Barangay Tree Park” and other environmental terms that connotes the community based-forestry. There are no substantial and evident proof in the concept of sustainable development for the LGOO to show higher rank marking in this area.
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The LGU has to look the strategic opportunity on its natural resources with substantial portion of the national and international funding for environmental programs, forest development and sustainable development that aligned with the community based-forestry.

  • There are no decentralization gaps as to the responsiveness in the implementation of the programs but the only concern is the tangible proof of employment and income sustainability produced in the community based-forestry.
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As a matter of fact, the LGPMS has proof to show the excellent performance that it is hard to accomplish by the LGU for the record in the environmental variable along forestry as the by-product of its responsiveness in this area along environmental governance:

  • Forest Ecosystem Management (58.33 percent or 14 municipalities) has excellent performance in setting target areas for rehabilitation and protection, and ensures the realization of projects.
  • Freshwater-Ecosystem Management ( 58.33 percent or 14 municipalities) has excellent performance in setting target areas for rehabilitation and protection, and ensure the realization of forestry projects.
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2. The Solid –Waste Disposal System has average assessment (X-3.14) with rank 4 (X-3.14) in the national program ; rank 7 ( X-3.36) in the executive officials; rank 8 in the sangguniangbayan when compared among the variables of the basic delivery services.

  • As validated by the LPGMS the solid waste management under the urban ecosystem management provides the areas of solution that may address the average assessment in this area. It is imperative to improve this program along the critical areas in the sanitary landfill with provisions of materials recovery and collection practices to respond efficiency and effectiveness in the solid-waste disposal system of the LGUs.
  • The local legislation needs the enactment, enforcement, and regulation relevant to the implementation of the national law on Solid Waste Management and strengthening the Solid Waste Management Board,
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3. The Agricultural Services have average assessment (X-3.39) with rank 6 when compared on the other basic services. The executive officials have been able to comply with high level of assessment ( X-3.82) and priority rank 2 in the basic services, however, local legislation (Rank 4 : X-3.40) and national program ( Rank 8:X- 2.95).

  • The inter-government agencies collaborations of the Department of Agriculture, Department of Trade and Industry, Department of Agrarian Reform, Department of Public Works and Highways and Financial institutions such as land bank and including the academe have not been totally well-established in the complementary process in providing technical assistance to the LGU.
  • The total approach of development is well-defined by the inter-government agency collaboration as provided by the LGU code to support improvement of infrastructure, credit facilitation, research and development, commerce and marketing development for the farmers.
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4. The Education Services have able to rank 6 for the executive officials (X-3.55) and sangguniangbayan (X-3.22) of the LGU while rank 2 (X- 3.50) in the national programs that positively affected with the over-all rank of 5 ( X-3.50).

  • The LGPMS assessment on education reflects some concerns areas of improvement that need to be addressed in the LGU particularly the local scholarship programs ( Rank 1 : 50 percent or 12 municipalities) and the investment of Special Education Fund ( Rank 2: 37.50 percent or 9 municipalities) such as construction, repairs or maintenance of school buildings; extension classes and extension teachers; and educational research.
  • The establishment of Alternative Learning System has also important strategic developmental tool to enhance the education services.
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5. The Social Services have better rank standing (OR-Rank: 4) when compared with the education services, agricultural services and community-based forestry with a overall meaning rating of 3.51 and descriptive rating of high.

  • No specific measures taken in the LPGMS in social governance as the consideration directs with support in peace, security and disaster management, support on education and health services, and support to housing and basic utilities. However, the national buzz words of PantawidPamilyang Filipino Program, Senior Citizens discount and social pension plan, relief operation and philhealth support.
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Table 8

The Inferential Analysis as to the Relationship of Local Governance Variables in the Delivery of Basic services in the LGU

Legend :

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed)

*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level ( 2 tailed)

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The inferential Analysis as to the Relationship of Local Governance Variables in the Delivery of Basic Services in the LGU

SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS

  • The LGOOs’ assessment on responsiveness of the basic local services showed that those with 50 years old and above including the female respondents that education services, peace and order, and social welfare are more functional and responsive in the delivery of basic services.
  • They agree that the social welfare program that connotes the buzz words of PantawidPamilyangPilipine, Senior Citizens’ Support, Relief Operations and Day Care centersare more responsive in the collaboration with the LGU.
  • The solid waste management brought better urban eco-system management in the locality.
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The peace and security demands more on law enforcement while health services and education are to be given more attention on the areas of improvement in the LPGMS.

  • It is their contention that the executive officials have actively utilizing the Local School Board and the enforcement of peace and order including the functionality of the social welfare program that proves highly responsive with national and local programs.
  • The infrastructure projects are not responsive when the functionality of the projects when the basic needs of the people is considered including the agricultural and health services.
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On the other hand, the male respondents are receptive infrastructure projects, agricultural and health services to be more responsive in the basic social services. These variables relate on the participation in the actual in field site projects for them to agree with the high level of assessment in these areas.

On Internal Revenue Allotment, Income Source and Other Sources of Income

Based on this study, there seems disparity as to the LGOOs’ assessment that the high financial income of IRA produced low level of responsiveness and effectiveness in the delivery of basic service as implemented by the Chief Executive Officers and inter- government agency collaborations in the LGU.

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An interesting grounded theory to discuss and interpret by this study :

  • The less income bracket from the 3rd class ,4th class and 5th class municipalities of the IRA produced responsiveness and effectiveness with the delivery of basic services in the LGU.
  • The high income bracket from 1st class to 2nd class municipalities are most likely the same descriptive level of responsiveness such as : High and Average assessment in delivery of basic services with the less income municipalities such as 3rd class-5th class municipalities.
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The areas of improvement in the LGPMS on indicators of State of Local Governance along administrative governance, economic governance, environmental governance, social governance and valuing governance are almost the same regardless of the income class of the municipalities.

. On Income Sources.

  • The LGOOs assessment showed that given by the less than 2 million income sources of the LGUs for the 3rd class , 4th class and 5th class municipalities are relying so much for the additional financial development support and programs in the locality. The inter-government agencies collaborations and linkages remained to be the effective and efficient tool to carry out for delivery of basic services in the LGUs.
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c. On Other Sources of Income

  • The substantial portion of the other sources of income of Republic Act No. 7171, level of responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of basic services revealed significant findings that whether the LGU received 36 million pesos- 60 million pesos in the Republic 7171 have the same value on the state of governance when even the allotment income is 25 million pesos- 35 million pesos when compared with areas of improvement identified in the LGMS along administrative governance, economic governance, environmental governance, social governance and valuing governance.
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The Critical Issues that must be addressed in the comparative analysis on the responsiveness Executive Official (EO), SangguniangBayan (SB) and National Programs (NP) in the Delivery of Basic Services for the Prescription to follow the standards of the “ Rising Tiger Economy of Asia in Local Governance"

The economic governance has been the strategic core ingredients in the government capacity to enhance the basic delivery of services. The IRA dependent support may not provide enough leeway to prescribe in joining the “Rising Tiger economy of Asia” as investment and local economy contributed the leap frog development in the Philippines.

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The LGUs must respond the following indicators under the entrepreneurship, business and industry promotion for 3rd to 5th class municipalities :

  • The creation of demand-driven support on infrastructure, tourism including entertainment parks, agriculture ( including forestry and fishery development), education, peace and security disaster management, and local economic zones.
  • The quality of innovation to enhance the permitting or licensing mechanisms including issuance of the necessary papers (business permits) in business, commerce and industry. This is the basic requirements when viable strategic business and industry in rural-urban management for the LGU.
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The direct support services to business in the micro, small and medium business including product labelling, product packaging, training, job fair and trade. It is important that administrative support body to take the lead in marketing the potential investments in the LGU.

  • The market development services particularly sustainability of the marketing of local products not simply trade fairs, exhibits, missions and congresses.
  • The real economic sense of regional and national support in business and investments of inter-agency collaborations within the situs of economic development and growth.
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The prescription for the “Rising Tiger Economy in Asia” primarily gauges in indicator 1 with the valuing governance fundamentals of governance follow the political maturity of development in the LGU. The value of economic success depends of careful planning in the long term , however, the current reality of economic growth and development defines more success in” traffic congestions” as the indicator of the real development in the LGU.

  • The heavier the traffic congestions the higher level of enjoyed economic investments and business opportunities in the LGU. The spill off concepts will come in when there is already “heavy traffic congestion” that the LGU requires expanding the situs of development to the other barren LGUs.
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The prescription for the “Rising Tiger Economy of Asia in Local Governance”

2013 NATIONAL CONFERENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION“ReAksyon: Rethink, Reduce, Reform … AkoangSolusyon” (Investing in Philippine Development Through Effective Public Administration)

AkoangSolusyon....... Local Government Units ( Local Executives Officials) need the help and assistance of the PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION EXPERTS LIKE YOU !

  • Technical consultants and experts
  • Program /project development
  • Public administration researchers and consultants
  • SUCs and HEIs need the conduit of the inter-governmental agency collaborationand linkages...

The creation of demand-driven support on infrastructure, tourism including entertainment parks, agriculture ( including forestry and fishery development), education, peace and security disaster management, and local economic zones.