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Designing for Residential & Light Commercial Projects with Modern Insulated Siding Technology An AIA Continuing Education Program Credit for this course is 1 AIA/CES Learning Unit for HSW Credit
Hughes & Associates is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES fir continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material, methods and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
Introduction Architects are challenged daily to design and specify building products that help them combine the best current technology, performance & energy efficiency to exceed the expectations of demanding clients.
Clients want environmentally friendly products that are low maintenance and provide cost effective long term performance.
Modern Insulated Siding products address these challenges and provide outstanding design options & great product performance for the design professional.
Course Learning Objectives • Understand The History of Siding • Define Insulated Siding Product compositions and performance attributes • Visually identify sidings • Installation of InsulatedSidings • Understand Warranty Issues • Divisional relationships of InsulatedSiding • Life cycle assessment of Siding Technologies
History of Siding • Wood • Asbestos • Hardboard • OSB • Aluminum • Steel • PVC • Fiber Cement • Modern Insulated Siding
Wood Siding • Oldest Technology • Multiple Species • Prone to deterioration and loss of structural integrity • Constant maintenance, paint or stain and periodic replacement • Susceptible to mildew, mold and fungus growth • Insect damage • Extensive flashing required to maintain water integrity
Wood Siding • Wood has been the choice for construction since man sharpened stones. The supply has been abundant and easy to shape and install. After the logs were cut for the sidewalks, the remaining pieces were layered and used on roofs and to fill holes and gaps. Man has also endured the problems with wood shakes: • Deterioration and loss of structural integrity • Constant maintenance, paint or stain and replacement of damaged panels • Susceptible to mildew, mold and fungus growth • Insect damage • Extensive flashing is required to maintain water integrity and heavily dependent on labor expertise.
Asbestos • Popular in 1940’s • First “Wood”Alternative • Insect Resistant • Heat Resistant • Long Term Warranties • Did not perform to expectations • Health Hazard
Asbestos In the 1940’s, Asbestos was the first wood alternative that was accepted in the marketplace and was used in many products for it’s outstanding insect and heat resistant qualities. Asbestos mineral shingles and sidings were very popular and promoted with long term warranted performance, The most popular asbestos siding were formed and designed for a “wood-shake” appearance. Asbestos sidings were produced with “non-friable” asbestos which would not crumble, abrade or otherwise release fibers into the air. Unfortunately, even before the health hazards of “friable” asbestos became front page news with litigation against Johns Manville, Celotex and Owens Corning, asbestos siding products did not perform as advertised. They faded quickly, absorbed moisture and were poor insulators.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) • Thermoplastic • Introduced in 1950’s • Low Impact Resistance • Color Through • Low Maintenance • Long Term Warranties • “Vinyl Siding”
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) is a versatile and widely used thermoplastic in many formulations included rigid PVC. PVC products were initially introduced in the late 50’s and early 60’s, but the early technology was expensive and the products exhibited problems with brittleness and color retention. Improvements in technology and extrusion techniques lowered the cost and extruded horizontal vinyl siding became the dominant choice for exterior cladding and today has a market share exceeding 40%.
Polyvinyl (PVC) Extruded The PVC is co-extruded and pulled through dies to shape the pliable PVC. The product is then immersed in water to cool. The product is cut to length and boxed. PVC products are color through the panels and have good resistance to chemicals . They have a low temperature threshold of 159 and are more prone to exhibit heat distortion. PVC will also produce carbon monoxide when burned.
Hardboard • Introduced in 1960’s • Dominate Market Share for 20 Years • Wood Fibers & Resins • Tempered Manufacturing Process • Did Not Perform To Expectations • Multiple Performance Problems • National Class Action Lawsuits
Hardboard Hardboard is a composite of wood fibers bonded with resins formed into a particular pattern or shape under heat and pressure. It may be tempered or standard. The tempered process will produce a denser product with higher moisture resistance. Hardboard is available in numerous profiles such as lap siding, shingles, or panel forms. Hardboard may be embossed with many different surface finishes from smooth to a heavy texture to simulate wood grain or even stucco with a primed or factory pre-finish.
Hardboard The majority of product problems and subsequent class action lawsuits were due to their susceptibility to moisture damage – either due to inherent product deficiencies or improper installation. Unsealed cut edges, overdriven nail heads and inadequate finish coatings all contribute to the absorption of moisture that caused the material to swell and/or deteriorate. Proper installation and maintenance are critical to the functional life of this material. Once deterioration or decay occurs, it cannot be corrected other than by material replacement.
Hardboard Peeling in hardboard is often due to poor maintenance of the coated surface. It generally originates at butt joints and drip edges. Water contact directly with bare hardboard in these areas eventually penetrates into the board to repeatedly permeate and expand the compressed wood fibers in the board. The swelling process is irreversible, resulting in delamination of both the paint film and the board. Hardboards are still available in the market in spite of dramatic market share losses and litigation. The number of producers are limited and warranties are clearly written to protect manufacturers from litigation due to lack of homeowner maintenance.
Oriented Strand Board • Created in late 1970’s • Evolved from wafer board • Engineered from oriented, non random long wood strands • Multiple Performance Problems • Class Action Lawsuits
OSB Manufacturing Process Oriented Strand Board (OSB) is an engineered, mat-formed panel product made of strands, flakes or wafers sliced from small diameter, round wood logs and bonded with an exterior-type binder under heat and pressure. OSB sidings consist of layered mats. Exterior or surface layers are composed of strands aligned in the long panel direction; inner-layers consist of cross or randomly-aligned strands. These large mats are then subjected to intense heat and pressure to become a "master" panel and are cut to size.
OSB Manufacturing Process Strand dimensions are predetermined and have a uniform thickness. The majority of Structural Board Association (SBA) member mills use a combination of strands up to 6" (150mm) long and 1" (25mm) wide. OSB's strength comes mainly from the uninterrupted wood fiber, interweaving of the long strands or wafers, and degree of orientation of strands in the surface layers. Waterproof and boil proof resin binders are combined with the strands to provide internal strength, rigidity and moisture resistance.
Oriented Strand Board OSB sidings are still available in the market in spite of dramatic market share losses and litigation. The number of producers are limited and warranties are clearly written to protect manufacturers from litigation due to lack of homeowner maintenance.
Aluminum • Created in 1947 • Recycled Content • May Qualify for LEED • Baked Enamel Finish Surface • Not Color Through • Low Impact Resistance • Long Term Warranty
Aluminum Cladding In North America, aluminum facades have been popular for residential buildings since the 1950’s. Original aluminum siding appeared on houses in the late 1950s as a retrofit product utilized to cover existing wall materials. The primary advantage of aluminum is the that the material is highly chemical resistant, rigid and lightweight. It also has a low rate of dilation, contraction and condensation. Extremely stable, durable and thermal efficient, they are waterproof and among the easiest sidings to handle. They come in a wide range of colors and textures and are warranted for as long as 40+ years.
Aluminum Cladding However, like most metals, aluminum does present some disadvantages. It will dent easily and is a good conductor of electricity that may prove to be dangerous when a wall area comes into contact with electrical wiring. Replacing or repairing a damaged area of the siding is very difficult due to the panel locking mechanism. Cleaning aluminum siding is quite easy with a power washed light bleach solution. Cleaning should be done once a year. Painting aluminum siding must be done with care, one should use 100% acrylic latex paint for aluminum siding, this paint will provide great performance
Fiber Cement • Made From Cement, pulp fiber, sand & water • Developed in Europe in the early 1900’s • Labor Intensive • Zero Flame Spread • Termite & Insect Resistant • Moisture Problems-Low Perm Rating • Poor Windload Performance
Fiber Cement Production Process Fiber cement siding is produced from a mixture of cement, sand, and cellulosic fibers. The manufacturing of fiber cement siding utilizes autoclaving, a high temperature steam curing process, to increase strength and dimensional stability. The cellulosic fibers are added to the mixture to prevent cracking. Fiber cement siding is manufactured in layers forming a sheet of the desired thickness. A wood grain is imprinted onto the surface at the time the uncured product is lifted by an accumulator roll and cut into individual sections, or in a separate high pressure molding process immediately after the product is cut.
Fiber Cement Fiber cement is available in several profiles and a large color palette. One option is horizontal lap siding, which includes profiles such as Dutchlap, beaded, and traditional clapboard. Shaped fiber cement siding is available as shingles, half rounds, octagons, and random squares. Vertical siding options include a traditional stucco appearance, smooth or cedar (either without vertical grooves or with regular interval grooves.) Fiber-cement siding holds paint well, usually 7-15 years. Some manufacturers make their siding available pre-primed or pre-finished. The siding must be thoroughly clean and dry and must have adequate time to dry. Dirt and mildew may adhere to flat paint. Satin topcoats have a higher chance of looking blotchy than flat ones, so thorough priming is critical. Oil-based primers are not recommended, but oil-based topcoats are acceptable over latex primers. Prolonged surface exposure to water causes degradation, so it is important to paint your siding within 90 days of installation.
Fiber Cement Fiber cement products are heavy and difficult to install due to ease of breakage at the edges. They lack the detailing depth and shadow lines of other cladding products and have to be carefully primed on edges and overlaps painted and repainted regularly and lack the depth and shadow lines of PVC and PP shake panels. They are also comprised of 50-80% crystalline silica which is a known carcinogenic when breathable dust from installation is inhaled. Fiber Cement also have a low Perm Rating and are more likely to contribute to an environment conducive to the creation of mold. The back of fiber cement products must be left unprimed to allow moisture to dissipate due to low permeability. Fiber cement will absorb & retain moisture.
Steel • Introduced in late 1940’s • PVC Surface • Class A Fire Rating • Insect Repellent • Low Maintenance • Wide Color Palette • High Impact Resistance • Long Term Warranty
Steel Steel siding is a low maintenance siding product. It will not rot, flake, crack or chip; imitates "wood look" more naturally, hides wall imperfections and requires no painting. Steel siding has a clean rigid appearance, is non-combustible and requires no maintenance except for periodic cleaning. The disadvantages of steel is that it is more expensive than vinyl or aluminum and can dent if hit hard enough and will show scratches. Most siding is 29 gauge and weighs less than hardboard or most other types of siding. It has an extremely high tensile strength and is galvanized on both sides to prevent rusting.
Modern Insulated Siding Physical Properties • Laminated Substrates: • Expanded Polystyrene • High Impact & Hail Resistant • Energy Saving “R” Value-ENERGY STAR® • Sound Deadening • Termite Resistant • High Permeability-Reduces Mold & Mildew • Fire Retardant
Insulated Siding Lamination • 1# Density Virgin Grade Expanded Polystyrene • Aged “R” Value of up to 5 • High PSI Rating • Termite Resistant Mineral Additive • Fire Retardant Additive • Perm Rating of 5 • Green Building Technology • Contains no CFCs, HCFCs or formaldehyde
Modern Insulated Siding Performance Characteristics Insulated siding laminated to PVC will provide impact, hail and durability comparable to hardboard and fiber cement cladding
Modern Insulated Siding Performance Characteristics EPS Lamination will add an “R” of up to 5 and provide a “thermal” envelope to address the 25% left without insulation with typical OSB/Plywood wall systems. “R” value can be added to comply with IRC Simplified Building Envelope Calculations, Section N1102.
Modern Insulated Siding Performance Characteristics Insulated Siding will provide sound deadening and provide an additional STC Rating. A typical 2’ x 4’ wall with R-13 batt will have an STC of 37+.
Modern Insulated Siding Performance Characteristics Insulated Siding has a termite resistant additive made from naturally occurring boron. It is non-toxic and deters termites. It should be used in conjunction with a total insect management program. Without Pest Repellent With Pest Repellent
Modern Insulated Siding Performance Characteristics Insulated siding provides maximum permeability and wall systems that “breath”. Thermal siding has a built in moisture management system that provides easy egress for any moisture that may enter the wall system.
Modern Insulated Siding Performance Characteristics Insulated siding laminated to PVC is designed to perform well in fire situations. Fire testing has confirmed that when exterior walls with thermal siding are exposed to a radiant heat source (as from a nearby burning building) and from open flame. The expanded polystyrene used in insulated siding is manufactured containing a fire retardant that reduces the product's contribution to a fire. When exposed to an open flame or a high radiant heat source, the EPS simply melts and sags away from the source of heat.
Modern Insulated Siding Performance Characteristics In addition, insulated siding completely fills the hollow void that exists behind hollow back vinyl and aluminum siding products. Since there are no air pockets, insulated siding eliminates the "chimney effect" that can contribute to the flammability of other siding systems. Insulated siding will meet the national building codes requiring foam plastic insulation used in the walls of residential construction to have a flame spread of not more than 75 and a smoke developed of not more than 450. Insulated siding will meet UL and ASTM E119 as part of a one-hour wall system.
Insulated Siding Accessories Universal starter strip 3 3/4" Outside Corner Post 1 1/4” Opening J-Channel 1 1/4" Opening Window/Door Surround
Installation Techniques • Use Solid Substrate • Use proper accessories • Use weather resistant barrier per code • Follow manufacturers installation guidelines
Basic Installation Guidelines Insulated siding is rigid and may be used over any code compliant sheathing product in new construction or renovation. Insulated siding will “float” most substrate imperfections. Furring strips may also be used to provide a nailable surface. A 3/4” stud penetration is recommended with flathead galvanized or aluminum roofing nails. Each thermal siding manufacturer may have different guidelines and strict adherence should be specified and enforced. Use of proper accessories is vital to achieve the long-term warranted performance from thermal siding. Insulated siding will provide an excellent water resistant cladding when proper accessories are specified and detailed.
Basic Installation Guidelines A code approved weather resistant barrier should be used to protect the substrate. Panel configurations mandate different installation techniques to assume the proper alignment to hide or minimize seams and ensure water and air infiltration integrity.
Warranties • Manufacturer warranty • Contractor’s warranty It is critical to understand the difference between the manufacturers and a contractor’s warranty. In addition to the great aesthetics and low-maintenance of Insulated Siding, manufacturers’ warranties are an important reason for their selection. Due to the differences in formulation and color retention, each manufacturers’ warranty may have important differences that may be critical to your clients.
How long is product warranted to original purchaser & what is covered? Is the warranty transferable? Does the warranty prorate after transfer? Is coverage based on initial purchase price or actual replacement cost? Warranty Questions
Sheathing-Section 06 16 00 Weather Resistant Barriers 07 27 00 Divisional Relationships of Insulated Sidings
Sheathing Section 06 16 00 The rigidity of Insulated Siding allows the use of any code compliant sheathing. The high permeability of Insulated Siding encourages a wall system with insulated sheathing products