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如何防備流感 HOW TO PREVENT INFLUENZA. 衞生署中央健康教育組 Central Health Education Unit DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH October 2005. What is Influenza?. Influenza (flu): is a highly infectious viral disease caused by various types of influenza viral strains. Seasonal Influenza.

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Central Health Education Unit


October 2005

what is influenza
What is Influenza?

Influenza (flu):

  • is a highly infectious viral disease
  • caused by various types of influenza viral strains


In Hong Kong, the disease is more common in periods from January to March and from July to August.


GOPC: General Out-patient Clinics

GP: General Practitioners

Consultation rate of influenza-like illness and number of influenza isolates in 2004


Influenza Pandemic

3 pre-requisites for the start of an Influenza Pandemic

A novel influenza virus subtype emergesand humans in general have no immunity against it

The new virus must be able to replicate in humans and cause serious illness

The new virus must be efficiently transmitted from one human to another

Photo: source from CDC


‘Influenza pandemic’ Vs ‘Seasonal Influenza’

When compared to localised “seasonal” influenza epidemic, the influenza pandemic:

  • Spreads quicker and broader
  • Usually associates with higher severity of illness and a higher death toll
  • Has more serious consequences, greater social and economic impact

Photo: source from CDC

the relationship with avian influenza
The relationship with Avian Influenza
  • The Hong Kong 1997 experience and the recent situation in Vietnam have demonstrated the pandemic potential of H5N1
  • The threat of H5N1 to human health is closely related to the outbreaks of HPAI (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza) in poultry
  • The surveillance of potential virus responsible for pandemic influenza is an important part of contingency preparedness

Preparedness Plan for Influenza Pandemic

The Government's 3-tier response system for handling major infectious disease outbreaks

  • Alert Response Level
  • Serious Response Level
  • Emergency Response Level

Alert Response Level

Scenarios :

  • Confirmation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry populations outside Hong Kong
  • Confirmation of HPAI in Hong Kong in imported birds in quarantine, in wild birds, in recreational parks, in pet bird shops or in the natural environment
  • Confirmation of human case(s) of avian influenza outside Hong Kong
actions from public alert level
Actions from Public –Alert Level
  • Maintain normal way of life
  • Pay attention to further announcements

from the Government


Serious Response Level


  • Confirmation of HPAI outbreaks in the environment of oramong poultry population in retail markets, wholesale markets, farms in Hong Kong due to a strain with known human health impact
  • Confirmation of human case(s) of avian influenza in Hong Kong withoutevidence of efficient human-to-human transmission
actions from public serious level
Actions from Public - Serious Level
  • Maintain normal way of life
  • Prepare enough masks for possible


  • Pay attention to and comply with

guidelines issued by the Government


Emergency Response Level

Scenarios :

  • Evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission of novel influenza overseasor in Hong Kong
  • Influenza pandemic

Actions from Public - Emergency Level

  • Use mask appropriately
  • Pay attention toand comply with

guidelines issued by the Government

why should we prevent influenza
Why Should We Prevent Influenza

Changeablesurface antigens of influenza viruses

Potential threat

Antigenic drift

(minor changes)

Seasonal influenza

Antigenic shift

(major changes)

Emergence of pandemic strain

Influenza pandemic

how to prevent
How to Prevent
  • Avoid touching live birds and poultry and their droppings
  • After contact with live birds and poultry, wash hands thoroughly with liquid soap and water immediately
  • Poultry and eggs should be thoroughly cooked before eating
  • Travellers returning from areas with reported avian flu outbreaks should consult doctors promptly if they have symptoms of influenza after the trip. Let the doctors know the travel history and wear a mask to prevent spread of the disease

How to Prevent

  • Ensure good ventilation
  • Avoid visiting crowded places with poor ventilation
  • Prevent the trap of drainage pipe from drying and

disinfect drain outlets. Pour half a litre of water into

each drain outlet and add 1 teaspoon of 1:99 diluted

household bleach solution into the outlet once a week

  • Keep your home clean, wipe furniture and toilet with

1:99 diluted household bleach solution once a day


How to Prevent

8 Steps to Protect Yourself

  • Individual preparedness
    • Before the pandemic comes
    • When the pandemic comes

8 Steps To Protect Yourself

Step 1 Be prepared

Step 2 Get vaccinated

Step 3 Keep hands clean

Step 4 Use mask properly


8 Steps To Protect Yourself

Step 5 Know how influenza presents

Step 6 Manage fever well

Step 7 Practise healthy lifestyle

Step 8 Be resourceful

s tep 1 be prepared1
Step 1 : Be Prepared
  • Build up good personal hygiene
    • wash hands frequently
    • wear mask when symptoms of
    • respiratory tract infection develop
    • cover mouth and nose with tissue
    • when coughing or sneezing and
    • dispose of soiled tissue properly in a
    • lidded rubbish bin
    • avoid touching eyes, mouth or nose

Step2 : Get Vaccinated

  • Seasonal peaks : Jan - Mar / Jul – Aug
  • Influenza vaccination
    • one of the effective means of preventing influenza and its complications
  • Influenza vaccination is recommendedto special groups

Step2 : Get Vaccinated

  • People not suitable to

receive influenza vaccination:

    • Allergic to eggs, neomycin, etc
    • Allergic to previous dose of
    • influenza vaccine
    • With bleeding disorders or on
    • warfarin
    •  deep subcutaneous injection
    • Suffer from acute febrile illness
    •  receive when recover

Step2 : Get Vaccinated

  • Two weeks after vaccination

 antibodies develop and

provide protection

  • Immunity declines over time

Step4 : Use Mask Properly

Points to note about wearing a surgical mask :

  • The mask should fit snugly over the face
  • Try not to touch the mask once it is secured on your face. If you must do so, wash your hands before and after touching the mask
  • When taking off the mask, avoid touching the outside of the mask

Step4 : Use Mask Properly

Points to note about wearing a surgical mask :

  • After taking off the mask, put the mask into a plastic or paper bag before putting it into a rubbish bin with a lid
  • A surgical mask should be changed at least daily
  • Replace the mask immediately if it is damaged or soiled

Step7 : Practise Healthy Lifestyle

Is one of the most effective ways to prevent communicable diseases

To lead a healthy lifestyle:

  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Get regular exercise
  • Do not smoke
  • Have adequate rest

 build up body resistance


Step7 : Practise Healthy Lifestyle

Major components of

a balanced diet

  • A variety of food
  • Whole grains as the major component of each meal
  • Plenty of fruits and vegetables
  • Adequate amounts of fluids

Step7 : Practise Healthy Lifestyle

  • Eat adequate amounts of lean meat or beans, and reduced fat dairy products
  • Avoid processed or preserved food and food that is rich in fat, cholesterol, salt and sugar
  • Have regular meals

Step7 : Practise Healthy Lifestyle

Regular exercise:

  • 30 minutes every day /

accumulate exercise time in multiple sessions not less than 10 minutes each

  • Physical activity of moderate intensity

builds up cardiovascular endurance

enhancesheart and lung functions and blood circulation



Knowledge can alleviate fear

  • Before crisis comes: Go through Influenza PandemicPreparedness Kit
  • During the pandemic: Up-to-date and accurate information & government advice available through pamphlets, posters, websites, hotlines & the media

Be prepared in advance

  • Understand Influenza
  • Work Together
  • Prevent thePANDEMIC