Expository Reading & Writing Curriculum California State University. Juvenile Justice. Activity 1 – Getting Ready to Read. Reflect If you committed a crime, do you think it would be fair for you to be punished the same way as an adult who committed the same crime? Write (5 minutes)
Expository Reading & Writing Curriculum California State University Juvenile Justice
Activity 1 – Getting Ready to Read • Reflect • If you committed a crime, do you think it would be fair for you to be punished the same way as an adult who committed the same crime? • Write (5 minutes) • Allow yourself to write freely for five minutes on the topic. • Share • Either read or talk about what you wrote with an elbow partner. • Discuss
Grammar Focus: Connecting Ideas • Listen as I read aloud a paragraph from one of the articles we will be reading. • Take notes as I read the paragraph again. You will be asked to rewrite the passage from memory. • Reconstruct the passage using your memory and notes. • Compare your passage with at least one peer. • Add any information you missed.
Grammar Focus: Connecting Ideas • How can you connect these sentences to show their logical relationship? • Robert Acuna’s youth should have counted in his favor. • He was only 17.
Activity 2: Introducing Key Concepts • Discuss • What characteristics make a person an adult, a juvenile, or a child? • Who is a juvenile? • What qualities are different for a juvenile compared with an adult or a child? • Work Together & Present • Brainstorm a list of qualities that characterize a juvenile but not an adult or a child.
Activity 2: Introducing Key Concepts What was the crime? • Homicide • Murder • First-degree murder • Second-degree murder • Voluntary manslaughter • Involuntary manslaughter
Activity 5: Introducing Key Vocabulary Create Semantic Maps Terms: Juvenile Crime Justice 1st – Brainstorm a list of related words 2nd – Sort the words into categories 3rd – Label the categories
Activity 3: Surveying the Text Reading Selections Supreme Court to Rule on Executing Young Killers Kids Are Kids – Until they Commit Crimes • What do the titles tell you the articles will be about? • What issue will these articles discuss? What position do you think each author will take?
Activity 4: Making Predictions & Asking Questions Listen to the first three paragraphs of Liptak’s article. • What do you think Liptak’s article is going to be about? • What do you think is the purpose of this text? • Who do you think is the intended audience for this piece? How do you know this? • Based on the title and what you have heard so far, what information and ideas might this article present?
Activity 4: Making Predictions & Asking Questions Read the first six paragraphs of “Kids are Kids” silently. • What is Lundstrom’s opinion on the topic of juvenile crime? • Turn the title into a question to answer as you read the essay.
Activity 6: Reading • Which of your predictions turned out to be true? • What surprised you? • Use your knowledge of the articles to fill out the graphic organizer “Recent Cases of Juvenile Crime”
Activity 6 Cont. • Now highlight the text in each article where arguments are made for and against punishing juveniles like adults • Ex. – “Supreme Court to Rule” Paragraph 2: Adolescent behavior may alienate a jury.
Arguments For and Against • “Supreme Court to Rule” • Paragraph 2: Adolescent behavior may alienate a jury • Paragraph 4: The declining number of death sentences makes them cruel and unusual punishment? • Paragraph 5: “questions about how reliable and consistent juries have been” in applying the death penalty
Arguments For and Against • “Kids are Kids” • Paragraph 14: “kids are different. Their reasoning is not fully developed.” • Paragraph 18: “juvenile crime is way down.” • Paragraph 22: “more likely to come out as violent career criminals than similar kids handled on the juvenile side.”
Activity 7: Looking Closely at Language • The following questions are based on the two articles we have read. Answer these questions in your notes: • Do you think that sentencing juvenile killers to the death penalty is a “cruel and unusual” punishment? Use “constitutional” or “unconstitutional” in your answer. • Should juveniles be punished less harshly than adults? Use “leniently” in your answer.
Questions Cont. 3. Describe the demeanor of a teenager you know. Do you think that such a demeanor would cause a jury to be lenient? (per 7, 1, 6) 4. Do you think execution should be banned for some age groups of juveniles? Which age groups? 5. What factors do you think juries should take into account when they sentence juveniles?
Questions Cont. 2 6. Do you agree with Lundstrom that it is inconsistent to deny privileges like voting and drinking to teenagers but then to sentence them as adults? Why? 7. Do you think juveniles should be tried as adults if they commit especially bad crimes? Use the word “heinous” in your answer. 8. Do you agree with Lundstrom that the media perpetuates the stereotype of violent youths?
Chart 6.2A • Expressing Logical Relationships with Subordination • Reason:because, since • Time:when, after, while, before, since, as soon as, once, until, whenever • Concession/Contrast:although, though, even though, while • Condition:if, when(ever), unless, otherwise • Result/Purpose:so . . . that, so that, in order that
Example • The main clause canstand alone(main clause) while the subordinate clausemust be connected to another clause (subordinate clause). • The logical relationship between these two clauses is contrast.
Chart 6.2B – Punctuating Sentences with Subordinate Clauses • Subordinate Clause Main Clause Subordinating Word… S + V + (Object) , S + V + (Object) • Because… S + V + (Object) , S + V + (Object) • Since . . . , • While . . . , • When . . . , • Although . . . , • Main Clause Subordinate Clause • S + V + (Object)because . . . • since . . . • while . . . • when . . . • although . . . • If the subordinate clause comes first, it is always followed by a comma. No comma is needed if the main clause comes first.
Example together • 1. Whenever a teenager commits a brutal crime, it attracts great publicity. • Logical relationship: • Condition • Why not time?
Pre-Read the text. • “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains” • “Many Kids Called Unfit for Adult Trial: Those under 15 often blind to the long-term results of their choices, a study says.” • What do the titles tell you the articles will be about? • What issue will these articles discuss? What position do you think each author will take?
Reading • Survey the text • Make predictions • Pay attention to how more information or new perspectives are added to arguments made by Liptak and Lundstrom
Activity 8: ReReading the Text • Our initial reading is “with the grain” • Play the “believing game” • Now we will read “against the grain” • Play the “doubting game” • Remember: Being skeptical (not easily convinced)will get your further in life than being cynical (distrustful of human sincerity or integrity).
Activity 8 Cont. • In the left hand margin of your text, label what the author is saying as follows: • The Introduction • The issue or problem the author is writing about • The author’s main arguments • The author’s examples • The author’s conclusion • In the right-hand margin, write your reactions to what the author is saying. • Ask questions • Express surprise • Disagree • Elaborate • Note any moments of confusion
Activity 8 Cont. 2 - Krikorian • The introduction: • Ends after the third paragraph • The issue/problem being written about: • Trying juveniles as adults • Main arguments: • Cites a story that juveniles are not emotionally or intellectually able to contribute to their own defense
Activity 8 cont.3 - Krikorian • Author’s examples • 11-13 year olds three times as likely to be “seriously impaired” • 14-15 year olds twice as likely • Author’s conclusion • Large numbers of juveniles, of the 200,000 a year who are tried, may be incompetent or barely competent to stand trial.
Analyzing Stylistic Choices • The choices writers make when they choose words and construct sentences create certain effects for their reader • Thompson in “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains” does not use dry, scientific language. • Why does Thompson use the following words to describe what happens to teenage brains?
“Startling Finds on Teenage Brains” • Paragraph 7 • Massive, wildfire, purged, violent passions, rash actions, vastly immature. • Paragraph 9 • Erratic behavior • Paragraph 10 • Maelstrom, reckless actions, startling, delicate, drastic
The words cont. • The words are vivid and dramatic, not at all the way a professor of neurology would describe the way a brain works • Changes in the teenage brain is invisible but huge • Implies the changes are a like a wildfire and destroy the gray matters of the brain • Uses language to let the reader know that he finds the development of the brain exciting
Sentences • Thompson’s sentences are fairly long and complex, but the last sentence in paragraph 6 is “So far, all well and good.” • Why is this sentence so short? • Possible answer: This is a turning point. What goes on before is a description of how development of brain matches skills in youth. • After this sentence Thompson talks about the rapid loss of brain tissue.
Looking at Language (worksheet) • Take a look at the language used in the two articles • Use contextual clues to match the key phrases with their meanings • Work with a partner to decipher the meanings of the key terms from the text
6.3 Connecting Ideas Using Transitions • Exercise 4: Identifying transitions and logical relationships • Chart 6.3 • Exercise 5: Using connecting words to join clauses • Exercise 6: Writing sentences using connecting words
Exercise 4 • Lionel Tate is only fourteen; however, he might be sentenced to life in prison. • Logical Relationship: • Contrasting statements. Both are main clauses.
Exercise 5 • Since age can shape every aspect of a capital case, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been. • Connecting word? • “Since” (subordinating) • Logical relationship? • Reason • Transitional words that use reason? • Therefore, consequently, thus, for that reason
Exercise 5 Continued… • (Since) age can shape every aspect of a capital case; therefore, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been. (incorrect) • Age can shape every aspect of a capital case; therefore, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been. (correct) • Age can shape every aspect of a capital case. Therefore, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been. (correct)
6.4 Student Writing • Exercise 7 • Editing student writing to make logical connections clear • Directions: Use the three ways to combine clauses (coordinating, subordinating, transitional) to improve the passage from a student essay. Circle the connecting words and the punctuation that you use with them.
Example Exercise 7 • Some people would say that teenagers should know right from wrong. Teenagers are very young. • Some people would say that teenagers should know right from wrong;however, teenagers are very young. • This example used a transitional word however. Since however is used to connect the two main clauses, it has a semicolon (;) before and a comma (,) after.
Postreading – Exercise 7.5 • Write a summary of “Many Kids Called Unfit for Adult Trial” by Greg Krikorian • Use your annotation of the introduction, topic, arguments, examples, and conclusions to guide your summary • Integrate 10 of the new vocabulary words in your summary. Be sure to circle the words you use. • Use connecting words (coordinating, subordinating, transitional) to connect your ideas
Journaling – Thinking Critically • Questions about Logic (Logos) • Questions about the Writer (Ethos) • Questions about Emotions (Pathos) • Logos • Reason and Judgment • Ethos • Characteristics of a culture, era, or community shown in its beliefs and aspirations • Pathos • Involving emotions (especially pity and sadness)
Krikorian’s “Many Kids Called Unfit for Adult Trial” • What are Krikorian’s major claims and assertions? Do you agree with his claims? (Logos) • Krikorian is a staff writer for the Los Angeles Times who frequently writes about legal issues. Does he seem trustworthy to write about this topic? Why or why not? (Ethos) • Do you think Krikorian is trying to manipulate your emotions? In what ways? At what point? (Pathos)
Activity 14: Using the Words of Others • One of the most important features of academic writing is the use of the words and ideas from written sources to support the writer’s own points. • There are essentially four ways to incorporate words and ideas from the sources.
Using the words of others... • Direct quotation – Paul Thompson says, “The biggest surprise in recent teen-brain research is the finding that a massive loss of brain tissue occurs in the teen years” • Paraphrase – In “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains,” Paul Thompson notes that teenagers actually lose brain tissue, a finding that may explain their impulsive behavior.
Still using the words of others… • Summary – In “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains,” Paul Thompson summarizes recent research that shows teenagers actually lose brain tissue, a finding that may explain their impulsive and violent behavior. Such changes in the brain do not mean that teens are not responsible for their violent behavior, but Thompson believes they should not be treated as adults in the criminal justice system.
Even still using other’s words… • Documentation –When you use other people’s words you need to take notes with full citation information. • For print material you need to record at least the author’s name, title of the publication, city of publication, publisher, date, and page number. • The two most common documentation formats are Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA).
MLA Format • Books. Here is a citation in MLA format for a typical book: Bean, John C., Virginia A. Chappell, and Alice M. Gilliam. Reading Rhetorically: A Reader for Writers. New York: Longman, 2002.
MLA Format • Newspapers • Here is the bibliographic information for the Thompson article in MLA format. The fact that it was published in a newspaper changes the format and the information slightly. Thompson, Paul. “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains.” Sacramento Bee 24 May 2001.
MLA Format • Web Sites • You might want to incorporate material from Web sites. To document a Web site, you need to record the author’s name (if known), the title of the site (or a description like “Homepage,” if no title is available), the date of the publication or most recent update (if known), the name of the organization that sponsors the site, the date of access, and the Web address (URL) in angle brackets.