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Expository Reading & Writing Curriculum California State University. Juvenile Justice. Activity 1 – Getting Ready to Read. Reflect If you committed a crime, do you think it would be fair for you to be punished the same way as an adult who committed the same crime? Write (5 minutes)

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activity 1 getting ready to read
Activity 1 – Getting Ready to Read
  • Reflect
    • If you committed a crime, do you think it would be fair for you to be punished the same way as an adult who committed the same crime?
  • Write (5 minutes)
    • Allow yourself to write freely for five minutes on the topic.
  • Share
    • Either read or talk about what you wrote with an elbow partner.
  • Discuss
grammar focus connecting ideas
Grammar Focus: Connecting Ideas
  • Listen as I read aloud a paragraph from one of the articles we will be reading.
  • Take notes as I read the paragraph again. You will be asked to rewrite the passage from memory.
  • Reconstruct the passage using your memory and notes.
  • Compare your passage with at least one peer.
  • Add any information you missed.
grammar focus connecting ideas1
Grammar Focus: Connecting Ideas
  • How can you connect these sentences to show their logical relationship?
    • Robert Acuna’s youth should have counted in his favor.
    • He was only 17.
activity 2 introducing key concepts
Activity 2: Introducing Key Concepts
  • Discuss
    • What characteristics make a person an adult, a juvenile, or a child?
    • Who is a juvenile?
    • What qualities are different for a juvenile compared with an adult or a child?
  • Work Together & Present
    • Brainstorm a list of qualities that characterize a juvenile but not an adult or a child.
activity 2 introducing key concepts1
Activity 2: Introducing Key Concepts

What was the crime?

  • Homicide
  • Murder
  • First-degree murder
  • Second-degree murder
  • Voluntary manslaughter
  • Involuntary manslaughter
activity 5 introducing key vocabulary
Activity 5: Introducing Key Vocabulary

Create Semantic Maps

Terms: Juvenile Crime

Justice

1st – Brainstorm a list of related words

2nd – Sort the words into categories

3rd – Label the categories

activity 3 surveying the text
Activity 3: Surveying the Text

Reading Selections

Supreme Court to Rule on Executing Young Killers

Kids Are Kids – Until they Commit Crimes

  • What do the titles tell you the articles will be about?
  • What issue will these articles discuss? What position do you think each author will take?
activity 4 making predictions asking questions
Activity 4: Making Predictions & Asking Questions

Listen to the first three paragraphs of Liptak’s article.

  • What do you think Liptak’s article is going to be about?
  • What do you think is the purpose of this text?
  • Who do you think is the intended audience for this piece? How do you know this?
  • Based on the title and what you have heard so far, what information and ideas might this article present?
activity 4 making predictions asking questions1
Activity 4: Making Predictions & Asking Questions

Read the first six paragraphs of “Kids are Kids” silently.

  • What is Lundstrom’s opinion on the topic of juvenile crime?
  • Turn the title into a question to answer as you read the essay.
activity 6 reading
Activity 6: Reading
  • Which of your predictions turned out to be true?
  • What surprised you?
  • Use your knowledge of the articles to fill out the graphic organizer “Recent Cases of Juvenile Crime”
activity 6 cont
Activity 6 Cont.
  • Now highlight the text in each article where arguments are made for and against punishing juveniles like adults
  • Ex. – “Supreme Court to Rule” Paragraph 2:

Adolescent behavior may alienate a jury.

arguments for and against
Arguments For and Against
  • “Supreme Court to Rule”
  • Paragraph 2: Adolescent behavior may alienate a jury
  • Paragraph 4: The declining number of death sentences makes them cruel and unusual punishment?
  • Paragraph 5: “questions about how reliable and consistent juries have been” in applying the death penalty
arguments for and against1
Arguments For and Against
  • “Kids are Kids”
  • Paragraph 14: “kids are different. Their reasoning is not fully developed.”
  • Paragraph 18: “juvenile crime is way down.”
  • Paragraph 22: “more likely to come out as violent career criminals than similar kids handled on the juvenile side.”
activity 7 looking closely at language
Activity 7: Looking Closely at Language
  • The following questions are based on the two articles we have read. Answer these questions in your notes:
  • Do you think that sentencing juvenile killers to the death penalty is a “cruel and unusual” punishment? Use “constitutional” or “unconstitutional” in your answer.
  • Should juveniles be punished less harshly than adults? Use “leniently” in your answer.
questions cont
Questions Cont.

3. Describe the demeanor of a teenager you know. Do you think that such a demeanor would cause a jury to be lenient? (per 7, 1, 6)

4. Do you think execution should be banned for some age groups of juveniles? Which age groups?

5. What factors do you think juries should take into account when they sentence juveniles?

questions cont 2
Questions Cont. 2

6. Do you agree with Lundstrom that it is inconsistent to deny privileges like voting and drinking to teenagers but then to sentence them as adults? Why?

7. Do you think juveniles should be tried as adults if they commit especially bad crimes? Use the word “heinous” in your answer.

8. Do you agree with Lundstrom that the media perpetuates the stereotype of violent youths?

chart 6 2a
Chart 6.2A
  • Expressing Logical Relationships with Subordination
  • Reason:because, since
  • Time:when, after, while, before, since, as soon as, once, until, whenever
  • Concession/Contrast:although, though, even though, while
  • Condition:if, when(ever), unless, otherwise
  • Result/Purpose:so . . . that, so that, in order that
example
Example
  • The main clause canstand alone(main clause) while the subordinate clausemust be connected to another clause (subordinate clause).
  • The logical relationship between these two clauses is contrast.
chart 6 2b punctuating sentences with subordinate clauses
Chart 6.2B – Punctuating Sentences with Subordinate Clauses
  • Subordinate Clause Main Clause

Subordinating Word… S + V + (Object) , S + V + (Object)

  • Because… S + V + (Object) , S + V + (Object)
  • Since . . . ,
  • While . . . ,
  • When . . . ,
  • Although . . . ,
  • Main Clause Subordinate Clause
  • S + V + (Object)because . . .
  • since . . .
  • while . . .
  • when . . .
  • although . . .
  • If the subordinate clause comes first, it is always followed by a comma. No comma is needed if the main clause comes first.
example together
Example together
  • 1. Whenever a teenager commits a brutal crime, it attracts great publicity.
  • Logical relationship:
  • Condition
  • Why not time?
pre read the text
Pre-Read the text.
  • “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains”
  • “Many Kids Called Unfit for Adult Trial: Those under 15 often blind to the long-term results of their choices, a study says.”
  • What do the titles tell you the articles will be about?
  • What issue will these articles discuss? What position do you think each author will take?
reading
Reading
  • Survey the text
  • Make predictions
  • Pay attention to how more information or new perspectives are added to arguments made by Liptak and Lundstrom
activity 8 rereading the text
Activity 8: ReReading the Text
  • Our initial reading is “with the grain”
    • Play the “believing game”
  • Now we will read “against the grain”
    • Play the “doubting game”
  • Remember: Being skeptical (not easily convinced)will get your further in life than being cynical (distrustful of human sincerity or integrity).
activity 8 cont
Activity 8 Cont.
  • In the left hand margin of your text, label what the author is saying as follows:
    • The Introduction
    • The issue or problem the author is writing about
    • The author’s main arguments
    • The author’s examples
    • The author’s conclusion
  • In the right-hand margin, write your reactions to what the author is saying.
    • Ask questions
    • Express surprise
    • Disagree
    • Elaborate
    • Note any moments of confusion
activity 8 cont 2 krikorian
Activity 8 Cont. 2 - Krikorian
  • The introduction:
    • Ends after the third paragraph
  • The issue/problem being written about:
    • Trying juveniles as adults
  • Main arguments:
    • Cites a story that juveniles are not emotionally or intellectually able to contribute to their own defense
activity 8 cont 3 krikorian
Activity 8 cont.3 - Krikorian
  • Author’s examples
    • 11-13 year olds three times as likely to be “seriously impaired”
    • 14-15 year olds twice as likely
  • Author’s conclusion
    • Large numbers of juveniles, of the 200,000 a year who are tried, may be incompetent or barely competent to stand trial.
analyzing stylistic choices
Analyzing Stylistic Choices
  • The choices writers make when they choose words and construct sentences create certain effects for their reader
  • Thompson in “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains” does not use dry, scientific language.
  • Why does Thompson use the following words to describe what happens to teenage brains?
startling finds on teenage brains
“Startling Finds on Teenage Brains”
  • Paragraph 7
    • Massive, wildfire, purged, violent passions, rash actions, vastly immature.
  • Paragraph 9
    • Erratic behavior
  • Paragraph 10
    • Maelstrom, reckless actions, startling, delicate, drastic
the words cont
The words cont.
  • The words are vivid and dramatic, not at all the way a professor of neurology would describe the way a brain works
  • Changes in the teenage brain is invisible but huge
  • Implies the changes are a like a wildfire and destroy the gray matters of the brain
  • Uses language to let the reader know that he finds the development of the brain exciting
sentences
Sentences
  • Thompson’s sentences are fairly long and complex, but the last sentence in paragraph 6 is “So far, all well and good.”
  • Why is this sentence so short?
  • Possible answer: This is a turning point. What goes on before is a description of how development of brain matches skills in youth.
  • After this sentence Thompson talks about the rapid loss of brain tissue.
looking at language worksheet
Looking at Language (worksheet)
  • Take a look at the language used in the two articles
  • Use contextual clues to match the key phrases with their meanings
  • Work with a partner to decipher the meanings of the key terms from the text
6 3 connecting ideas using transitions
6.3 Connecting Ideas Using Transitions
  • Exercise 4: Identifying transitions and logical relationships
  • Chart 6.3
  • Exercise 5: Using connecting words to join clauses
  • Exercise 6: Writing sentences using connecting words
exercise 4
Exercise 4
  • Lionel Tate is only fourteen; however, he might be sentenced to life in prison.
  • Logical Relationship:
  • Contrasting statements. Both are main clauses.
exercise 5
Exercise 5
  • Since age can shape every aspect of a capital case, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been.
  • Connecting word?
  • “Since” (subordinating)
  • Logical relationship?
  • Reason
  • Transitional words that use reason?
  • Therefore, consequently, thus, for that reason
exercise 5 continued
Exercise 5 Continued…
  • (Since) age can shape every aspect of a capital case; therefore, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been. (incorrect)
  • Age can shape every aspect of a capital case; therefore, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been. (correct)
  • Age can shape every aspect of a capital case. Therefore, questions are raised about how reliable and consistent jurors have been. (correct)
6 4 student writing
6.4 Student Writing
  • Exercise 7
  • Editing student writing to make logical connections clear
  • Directions: Use the three ways to combine clauses (coordinating, subordinating, transitional) to improve the passage from a student essay. Circle the connecting words and the punctuation that you use with them.
example exercise 7
Example Exercise 7
  • Some people would say that teenagers should know right from wrong. Teenagers are very young.
  • Some people would say that teenagers should know right from wrong;however, teenagers are very young.
  • This example used a transitional word however. Since however is used to connect the two main clauses, it has a semicolon (;) before and a comma (,) after.
postreading exercise 7 5
Postreading – Exercise 7.5
  • Write a summary of “Many Kids Called Unfit for Adult Trial” by Greg Krikorian
  • Use your annotation of the introduction, topic, arguments, examples, and conclusions to guide your summary
  • Integrate 10 of the new vocabulary words in your summary. Be sure to circle the words you use.
  • Use connecting words (coordinating, subordinating, transitional) to connect your ideas
journaling thinking critically
Journaling – Thinking Critically
  • Questions about Logic (Logos)
  • Questions about the Writer (Ethos)
  • Questions about Emotions (Pathos)
  • Logos
    • Reason and Judgment
  • Ethos
    • Characteristics of a culture, era, or community shown in its beliefs and aspirations
  • Pathos
    • Involving emotions (especially pity and sadness)
krikorian s many kids called unfit for adult trial
Krikorian’s “Many Kids Called Unfit for Adult Trial”
  • What are Krikorian’s major claims and assertions? Do you agree with his claims? (Logos)
  • Krikorian is a staff writer for the Los Angeles Times who frequently writes about legal issues. Does he seem trustworthy to write about this topic? Why or why not? (Ethos)
  • Do you think Krikorian is trying to manipulate your emotions? In what ways? At what point? (Pathos)
activity 14 using the words of others
Activity 14: Using the Words of Others
  • One of the most important features of academic writing is the use of the words and ideas from written sources to support the writer’s own points.
  • There are essentially four ways to incorporate words and ideas from the sources.
using the words of others
Using the words of others...
  • Direct quotation – Paul Thompson says, “The biggest surprise in recent teen-brain research is the finding that a massive loss of brain tissue occurs in the teen years”
  • Paraphrase – In “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains,” Paul Thompson notes that teenagers actually lose brain tissue, a finding that may explain their impulsive behavior.
still using the words of others
Still using the words of others…
  • Summary – In “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains,” Paul Thompson summarizes recent research that shows teenagers actually lose brain tissue, a finding that may explain their impulsive and violent behavior. Such changes in the brain do not mean that teens are not responsible for their violent behavior, but Thompson believes they should not be treated as adults in the criminal justice system.
even still using other s words
Even still using other’s words…
  • Documentation –When you use other people’s words you need to take notes with full citation information.
    • For print material you need to record at least the author’s name, title of the publication, city of publication, publisher, date, and page number.
    • The two most common documentation formats are Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA).
mla format
MLA Format
  • Books. Here is a citation in MLA format for a typical book:

Bean, John C., Virginia A. Chappell, and Alice M. Gilliam. Reading Rhetorically: A Reader for Writers. New York: Longman, 2002.

mla format1
MLA Format
  • Newspapers
    • Here is the bibliographic information for the Thompson article in MLA format. The fact that it was published in a newspaper changes the format and the information slightly.

Thompson, Paul. “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains.” Sacramento Bee 24 May 2001.

mla format2
MLA Format
  • Web Sites
    • You might want to incorporate material from Web sites. To document a Web site, you need to record the author’s name (if known), the title of the site (or a description like “Homepage,” if no title is available), the date of the publication or most recent update (if known), the name of the organization that sponsors the site, the date of access, and the Web address (URL) in angle brackets.
web site citation example
Web Site Citation Example:

Primary Election 2000 Voter Guide. California Secretary of State. 31 December 2004. <http://primary2000.sos.ca.gov/VoterGuide/Propositions/21.htm>.

  • Because the name of the author is unknown for the above site, it is left out. This entry would appear in the Works Cited section, alphabetized as Primary Election.
in text documentation
In-Text Documentation
  • The MLA style also requires in-text documentation for every direct quotation, indirect quotation, paraphrase, or summary. If the author’s name is given in the text, the page number should be furnished in parentheses at the end of the sentence containing the material.
in text documentation example
In-Text Documentation Example
  • “Although the rise in teenage crime is alarming, it should not cause states to toughen their laws so that even young teens are treated like adults in the criminal justice system. Recent research on teenage brains shows that the areas of the brain that control decision-making undergo a loss of brain tissue which supports the argument that teenagers are different from adults and should be treated more leniently” (Thompson).
example explained
Example explained…
  • Because the author is not named in the text, the last name goes in the parentheses; since the article is short, no page numbers are needed.
  • If the article were longer or if the quote was taken from a book the parentheses would include the page number. For example:
    • (Thompson, 93)
practice with sources
Practice with Sources
  • Choose three passages from the texts you are reading that you might be able to use in an essay.
  • First, write down each passage as a correctly punctuated direct quotation.
  • Second, paraphrase the material in your own words.
  • Finally, respond to the idea expressed in the passage by agreeing or disagreeing with it and explaining why. Do not use personal pronouns “I” or “me”. Now you are ready to use this material in an essay!
writing assignment
Writing Assignment
  • Should teenagers accused of violent crimes be tried and sentenced as adults? Why or why not?
  • Be sure to refer and cite the readings from class. Use your annotations of the articles, quotes, and knowledge of connecting words/phrases to write your paper. You may also use examples from your personal experience and observations.
formulating a working thesis
Formulating a Working Thesis
  • Your thesis should be a complete sentence and can be revised several times – don’t stress out about it.
  • What specific questions will your essay address? What is your response to the question?
  • What support and evidence have you found?

(facts, statistics, authorities, personal experience, anecdotes, stories, and scenarios)

complete the thesis
Complete the Thesis
  • How much background information do your readers need to understand your topic and thesis?
  • If readers were to disagree with your thesis or the validity of your support, what might they say? How would you address their concerns? (What would you say to them).
sample thesis
Sample Thesis
  • Take five minutes to try and come up with your own thesis for this prompt.
  • “Trying and sentencing adolescents as adults is inhumane since research and experience indicate that they are not fully mature.”
composing a draft
Composing a Draft
  • State your opinion on the topic in the thesis statement
    • You must take a stand. Your thesis must be debatable (not everyone will agree with it).
  • Who is your audience?
    • Educated, but not experts on the topic.
  • Choose your evidence that supports your arguments (quotes, paraphrases) and give credit where it is due.
composing a draft 2
Composing a Draft 2…
  • Types of Evidence:
    • Facts, Statistics, References to Authorities, Examples, Personal Stories (all from the articles).
  • Anticipate opposing points of view.
      • Give argument from other point of view and respond to it to strengthen your own argument.
  • Maintain a reasonable tone
    • Keep the voice of the essay calm and reasonable
    • Yelling gets you nowhere in an argument
composing a draft 3
Composing a Draft 3…
  • Organize your essay so that it presents your position as effectively as possible.
    • You want your audience to agree with you.
      • Don’t put your opponents down or imply that they are unintelligent or uneducated.
    • The number of paragraphs varies depending on the nature of your assignment, how much evidence you need to give, and whether or not your address the topic effectively.
the big three
The Big Three
  • Introduction
    • Background information, introduction of subject, statement of writer’s opinion.
  • Body Paragraphs
    • Common ground, evidence that supports your arguments (logical and emotional), opposing points of view, response to opposing points of view
  • Conclusion
    • Restatement of your position, call for action or agreement
introduction
Introduction
  • A “hook” to get the reader’s attention
  • Background information the audience may need
  • A thesis statement, along with some indication of how the essay will be developed.
    • A thesis statement states the topic of the essay and the writer’s position on that topic. You may choose to sharpen or narrow your thesis at this point.
body paragraphs
Body Paragraphs
  • Paragraphs that support the thesis statement, usually with topic sentences supported with evidence (quotes, paraphrases).
  • Includes different points of view or address counterarguments.
    • Address those points of view and refute them, acknowledge them (but show your argument is better), or show that they are irrelevant.
  • Evidence that you have considered the values, beliefs and assumptions of your audience; your own values, beliefs, and assumptions; and some common ground that appeals to the various points of view.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • A final paragraph (or paragraphs) that includes a solid argument to support the thesis and indicates the significance of the argument – addressing the “so what” factor.
developing the content
Developing the Content
  • Most body paragraphs consist of a topic sentence (an implied topic sentence) and concrete details to support that topic sentence.
  • Body paragraphs give evidence in the form of examples, illustrations, statistics, and so forth. They also analyze the meaning of the evidence.
  • Each topic sentence is usually directly related to the thesis statement
  • No set number of paragraphs is required for an essay
  • The thesis dictates and focuses the content of the essay