Civil Engineering Dept. Master Program. Infrastructure planning and management. Lecture(9). 2013-2014. Environmental impact assessment. Definition.
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Infrastructure planning and management
AnEnvironmental Impact Assessment(EIA) is an assessment of the possible impact—positive or negative—that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the natural, social and economic aspects.
The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts to decide whether to proceed with the project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made.
Social impact assessment includes the processes of analyzing, monitoring and managing the intended and unintended social consequences, both positive and negative, of planned interventions (policies, programs, plans, projects) and any social change processes invoked by those interventions.
Its primary purpose is to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical and human environment.
Comparison of project alternatives involving environmental and social impact
Environmental criteria relevant to irrigation projects and social impact
Factors in selection of method for comparing Environmental Impacts of alternatives