Supreme Court Cases Setting the Precedent
John Marshall V Helped make the Supreme Court the powerful institution it is today Presided over several important cases and established Judicial Review Info on Court Cases Supreme Court cases (like body builders) can be recognized by the “v.” in the middle—it stands for “versus” The first name is the person bringing the lawsuit (plaintiff) the second name is the person or institution being sued (defendant.
Marbury v. Madison Marbury v. Madison (1803)—Established the idea of Judicial Review Justice Marshall said that the Supreme Court (judicial) had the right to review all laws made by congress to decide if they are unconstitutional “Papa” Memory Tool: Papa M&M and Jr. M&M M&M = Marbary v Madison Jr. = Judicial Review “Jr.”
Worcester v. Georgia In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Cherokees sued Georgia to keep their lands and won. President Jackson ignored the ruling. In 1837 the, federal troops forced the Cherokees to move in what is called the “Trail of Tears”.
McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden McCulloch v. Maryland(1819), was about because a tax by the State of Maryland on the the Bank of the United States The Court said Congress can create a national bank or other institutions using the Elastic Clause of the Constitution This case made the federal government stronger In Gibbons v. Ogden(1824), the Court further reduced the power of the states and increased the supremacy of the Federal Government.
The Dred Scott Decision In 1857 Dred Scott, a slave, sued for his freedom. He argued that because his owner had once taken him to live in Wisconsin (a free territory according to the Missouri Compromise), he should be free.
The Dred Scott Decision Continues The court ruled the following: Scott could not bring a lawsuit because slaves were property, not citizens. The Constitution protects property from being taken without due process of law. Therefore, the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it banned slavery in the territories (did not protect people’s property). This case greatly divided the North and South.