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Nickels Cover. Nickels McHugh McHugh And Chris. Chapter. Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams. 10. 10- 2. The Hawthorne Studies and the recognition of Human Motivation. Scientific Management. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

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And Chris



Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams




The Hawthorne Studies and the

  • recognition of Human Motivation
  • Scientific Management
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Herzberg’s Motivators and Hygiene factors
  • Job Enrichment
  • Theories X,Y, Z
  • Management By Objectives (MBO)
  • Expectancy, reinforcement and

equity theories

  • Open communication and teamwork
1 scientific management
1) Scientific Management
  • Scientific Management – studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques.
  • Time-motion studies – studies, begun by Frederick Taylor, of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task.
evolution of human relations management concepts











Evolution of Human Relations Management Concepts
2 the hawthorne studies and the recognition of human motivation
2) The Hawthorne Studies and the Recognition of Human Motivation
  • Hawthorne Effect – the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.
3 maslow s hierrachy of needs
3)Maslow’s Hierrachy of Needs
  • Physiological needs – basic survival needs,

such as the need for food, water and shelter.

  • Safety needs – the need to feel secure at work
  • and at home.
  • Social needs – the need to feel loved, accepted,
  • and part of the group.
  • Esteem needs – the need for recognition and
  • acknowledgement from others, as well as self
  • respect and a sense of status or importance.
  • Self-actualization needs – the need to develop to
  • one’s fullest potential.
maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs




Esteem Needs

Social Needs


Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

4 herzberg s motivators and hygiene factors
4) Herzberg’s Motivators and Hygiene Factors
  • Motivators – job factors that cause employees to be productive and give them satisfaction.
  • Hygiene factors – job factors that can
  • cause dissatisfaction if missing but do not
  • necessarily motivate employees if
  • increased.

Herzberg’s Theory

Figure 10.5 Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg

5 job enrichment
5) Job Enrichment
  • Job enrichment – a motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself.
  • Job rotation – a job enrichment strategy that
  • involves moving employees from one job to
  • another.
  • Job enlargement – a job enrichment strategy
  • that involves combining a series of tasks
  • into one challenging and interesting
  • assignment.
job oriented motivational techniques
Job-Oriented Motivational Techniques
  • Job Enrichment/Redesign
    • Skill Variety
    • Task Identity/Significance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
  • Job Simplification
  • Job Enlargement
  • Job Rotation
6 theories x y z
6) Theories X, Y, Z
  • X : workers are lazy and stupid
  • Y : workers are naturally motivated and gifted
  • Z : combine Japanese and American approaches during 1980’s
mcgregor s theories
Theory X- Autocratic

Dislike Work

Avoid Responsibility

Little Ambition

Force/Control/ Direct/Threaten

Motivated by Fear & Money

Theory Y- Democratic

Like Work

Naturally Works Toward Goals

Seeks Responsibility

Imaginative, Creative, Clever

Motivated by Empowerment

McGregor’s Theories
ouchi s theory z
Ouchi’s Theory Z
  • Long-Term Employment
  • Collective Decision-making
  • Individual Responsibility
  • Slow Evaluation/ Promotion
  • Specialized Career Path
  • Holistic Concern for Employees
7 management by objectives mbo
7) Management by Objectives (MBO)
  • MBO – a system of goal setting and implementation that involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors, and employees.
goal setting theory mbo
Goal-Setting Theory (MBO)
  • Goal-Setting Theory
  • Management By Objectives (1960s)
    • Employees Motivate Themselves
    • Help
    • Coach
8 expectancy reinforcement and equity theories
8) Expectancy, Reinforcement and Equity Theories
  • Expectancy theory – the amount of effort employees exert on a task depends on their expectations of the outcome.
  • Reinforcement theory – positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways.
  • Equity theory – the idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions.
employee oriented motivational techniques
Employee-Oriented Motivational Techniques
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Equity Theory
expectancy theory employee questions
Expectancy Theory: Employee Questions
  • What is the probability that I can perform at the required level if I try?
  • What is the likelihood my performance will lead to the desired outcomes?
  • What value do I place on the outcome?
how to use expectancy theory
How to UseExpectancy Theory
  • Determine rewards valued by employees.
  • Evaluate performance level you seek.
  • Make performance level attainable.
  • Make reward valuable to employee.
9 open communication and teamwork
9) Open Communication andTeamwork
  • Cross-functional teams – groups of employees from different departments who work together on a long-term basis.
teamwork open communication
Self-Managed Teams = Open Communication

Identify Procedures

Apply Procedures

Change Not Easy

Employee Empowerment

Teamwork & Open Communication
keys to building employee trust
Keys to Building Employee Trust
  • Start from a position of trust
  • Be consistent
  • Listen with an open mind & respect others’ opinions
  • Admit your mistakes
  • Give credit where credit is due

Source: Communication Solutions