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  1. A seminarOn Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) اعداد الطالب :صبحى سلامه حسين

  2. What is the cause of the suffering of the plant There are plants in their natural environment surrounded by lots of interrelated factors which can be divided into:. These factors twice each Optimum values ​​where the relationship between the factor and plant twice a balanced relationship and where the plant helthy in terms of shape and anatomical structure andPhysiological performance Healthy The occurrence of any imbalance in these factors lead to the suffering of the plant, which appear in the form of symptoms or signs of illness

  3. These symptoms may be because of ِA biotic factors Biotic factors

  4. These symptoms may be diagnostic or non-diagnostic Non Diagnostic Diagnostic Papaya ringspo virus mosaic

  5. Morphological symptoms Replacement of organs by New structures Dropping of leaves blossoms or fruits Malformation and excessive growth production Destruction of plant organs Alteration in habit symmetry Shot hole Wilt Damping off Mummification Increase in size Necrosis discoloration Rotting of tissues

  6. Nucleic acid Direct visualization of Entire genomes techniques The polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) Restriction digestion And electrophoresis Of DNA Hybridization of DNA and RNA

  7. The polymerase reaction (PCR) PCR technique depend on three thermal steps Denaturation at 94°C Annealing at 54°C Extension at 72°c

  8. The primary materials, or reagents, used in PCR • The primary materials, or reagents, used in PCR are: • 1- DNA nucleotides, the building blocks for the new DNA • 2- Template DNA, the DNA sequence that you want to amplify • 3- Primers, single-stranded DNAs between 20 and 50 nucleotides long (oligonucleotides) that are complementary to a short region on either side of the template DNA • 4- DNA polymerase, a heat stable enzyme that drives, or catalyzes, the synthesis of new DNA

  9. The different steps of PCR One step

  10. Exponential increase of the number of copies during PCR

  11. Thermocycler or PCR machine