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Igor Sharakhov. High Rates of Genome Rearrangements in Malaria Mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and A. funestus. University of Notre Dame, USA. Genus Anopheles Subgenus Cellia. Series Pyretophorus gambiae species complex. Myzomyia funestus group. A. gambiae. A. funestus.

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igor sharakhov
Igor Sharakhov

High Rates of Genome Rearrangements in Malaria Mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and

A. funestus

University of Notre Dame, USA



Subgenus Cellia

  • Series Pyretophorus
  • gambiae species complex
  • Myzomyia
  • funestus group

A. gambiae

A. funestus


FISH on chromosomes of A. funestus

Of 157 cDNAs used as probes, 116 mapped to single chromosomal locations, and the remainder hybridized in multiple locations


Synteny at the whole arm level

  • Reciprocal whole arm translocation between 2L and 3R

Gene order comparison

  • funestus
  • A. gambiae

Length of X – 24.9Mb

Mean length of conserved segments - 2.0Mb0.2Mb

Number of inversions - 51

(Nadeau &Taylor, PNASUSA. 1984 Feb;81(3):814-8 )



  • A. gambiae

Mean length of conserved segments - 0.9Mb0.2Mb

Number of inversions - 369

  • funestus
  • A. gambiae

Mean length of conserved segments - 2.2Mb1.0Mb

Number of inversions - 113



  • A. gambiae

Mean length of conserved segments - 2.2Mb0.4Mb

Number of inversions - 113

  • funestus
  • A. gambiae

Mean length of conserved segments - 1.1Mb0.4Mb

Number of inversions - 195


Rate of gene order rearrangement

The divergence time between A. gambiae

and A. funestus lineages is ~ 5 My


Attachments of chromosomes to

the nuclear envelope (NE)

A. funestus

A. gambiae

(Sharakhov et al. Genetics. 2001 Sep;159(1):211-8)


Function of nuclear organization in

interphase chromosome interactions

(Marshall WF, Curr Biol. 2002 Mar 5;12(5):R185-92)

  • Gene order has being shuffled at a high rate
  • Paracentric inversions have had a major impact on the genome rearrangement
  • Genomic segments evolve at different rates

University of Notre Dame, USA

  • Andrew Serazin, Olga Grushko, Ali Dana, Neil Lobo, Maureen Hillenmeyer, Frank Collins, Nora Besansky
  • Purdue University, USA
  • Richard Westerman, Jeanne Romero-Severson
  • Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme, Burkina Faso
  • N’Fale Sagnon, Carlo Costantini

This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (AI48842) to N.B. and from the Indiana 21st Century Research & Technology Fund to F.C.