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Sonnets • A fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in iambic pentameter (a line of poetry made up of 5 iambs, a metrical foot or unit of measure consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable), that has one of several rhyme schemes • Lyric Poetry – poetry that focuses on expressing emotions or thoughts, rather than on telling a story • A problem is presented, a question is posed, or an idea is expressed, and then a “turn” resolves or answers the question
Shakespearean Sonnet • Sometimes called the English Sonnet • Used by William Shakespeare • Three quatrains ( 3 four-line units), each quatrain has related ideas • Ending in a couplet (2 rhyming lines), sums up the poet’s conclusion • Rhyme scheme is usually – abab cdcd efef gg
Spenserian Sonnet • Developed by Edmund Spenser • Three quatrains (3 four-line units) • Ending in a couplet (2 rhyming lines) • Usual rhyme scheme – abab bcbc cdcd ee
From Amoretti Sonnet 30 Edmund Spenser My love is like to ice, and I to fire; How comes it then that this her cold so great Is not dissolved through my so hot desire, But harder grows the more I her entreat? Or how comes it that my exceeding heat Is not delayed by her heart frozen cold, But that I burn much more in boiling sweat, And feel my flames augmented manifold? What more miraculous thing may be told That fire which all thing melts, should harden ice, And ice which is congealed with senseless cold, Should kindle fire by wonderful device? Such is the power of love in gentle mind, That it can alter all the course of kind.
Sonnet 75 Edmund Spenser One day I wrote her name upon the strand. But came the waves and washed it away; Again I wrote it with a second hand, But came the tide, and made my pains his prey. “Vain man,” said she, “that doest in vain assay,” A mortal thing so to immortalize, For I myself shall like to this decay, And eke my name be wiped out likewise.” “Not so,” quod I, “let baser things devise” To die in dust, but you shall live by fame: My verse your virtues rare shall eternize, And in the heavens write your glorious name. Where when as death shall all the world subdue, Our love shall live, and later life renew.”
Sonnet 73 William Shakespeare That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, Bare ruin’d choirs, where late the sweet birds sang. In me thou seest the twilight of such day As after sunset fadeth in the west, Which by and by black night doth take away, Death’s second self, that seals up all in rest. In me thou see’st the glowing of such fire That on the ashes of his youth doth lie, As the death-bed whereon it must expire Consumed with that which it was nourish’d by. This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong, To love that well which thou must leave ere long.
Sonnet 116 William Shakespeare Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove: O no! It is an ever-fixed mark That looks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wandering bark, Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle’s compass come: Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom. If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved.