Diversity, Cultural Competency. 7 ,. True or False?? ……… (and why?). A gay man understands what all other gay men are going through. A 60 year old white male knows what every other sixty year old white male is going through.
Two major factors affect a person’s characteristics of diversity:
Thus, while we might be able to relate to others in general by sharing group locators, we can never fully relate to others because of the wide variety of individual differences.
“Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. 'Culture' refers to integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups. 'Competence' implies having the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.”
US Dept of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health
(Adapted from Cross, 1989)
“[C]ulturalcompetence in clinical practice is best defined not by a discrete endpoint but as a commitment and active engagement in a lifelong process that individuals enter into on an ongoing basis with patients, communities, colleagues, and with themselves ….
This training ….is a process that requires humility as individuals continually engage in self-reflection and self-critique as lifelong learners and reflective practitioners."
“Cultural Humility Versus Cultural Competence,” Melanie Tervalon, Jann Murray-García (pdf)
Susan Allan, MD, JD, MPH
Listening requires focus.
The major barrier to successful interpersonal communication:
Our natural tendency is to evaluate from our own frame of reference, and approve or disapprove of what another person is saying.
This is particularly the case when the topic is linked to strong emotions.
Listeners must be aware of their own filters, judgments, reactions, and thoughts
1. Stop Talking
Do not interrupt, talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen.
2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Relax. Focus on the speaker.
3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Show you are listening and understanding what is being said.
4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said.
Look at issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas.
6. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished.
7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial. Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.
8. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying.
9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others.
10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes
- using your 5 senses to receive a message. You hear it, see it, touch it, taste it, and even smell it. Your radar must be keen to pick up the many messages that come into your path.
- arriving at an understanding of what the message means after you have Sensed it.
Encouraging the speaker to continue, asking questions and seeking the main point are a few of the skills that are used to Interpret.
- includes the ability to analyze the evidence before jumping to a conclusion. Poor listeners make snap judgments and jump to false conclusions. Great listeners are responsible and disciplined to withhold making a judgment until they fully understand the message.
- responding to the speaker verbally or non-verbally to let them know that the message has gotten through and is understood.
Dr. Richard K. (Rick) Bommelje