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Diversity, Cultural Competency. 7 ,. True or False?? ……… (and why?). A gay man understands what all other gay men are going through. A 60 year old white male knows what every other sixty year old white male is going through.

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true or false and why
True or False?? ……… (and why?)
  • A gay man understands what all other gay men are going through.
  • A 60 year old white male knows what every other sixty year old white male is going through.
  • All women who grew up in immigrant families from Latin American countries have had similar experiences and feel the same way about most aspects of their lives.
group and individual factors of diversity
Group and Individual Factors of Diversity

Two major factors affect a person’s characteristics of diversity:

  • Group placement: race, religion, cultural and other factors that place the person within a group.
    • The group locator normally remains stable and it is only through great paradigm shifts that it moves up or down the continuum or scale.
  • Individual factors composed of a person's personal life experiences.
    • So while a person might be Asian, which is a group locator, her personal life experiences that make her an individual determine her actual individual placement upon the continuum.

Thus, while we might be able to relate to others in general by sharing group locators, we can never fully relate to others because of the wide variety of individual differences.

cultural competence
“Cultural Competence”

“Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. 'Culture' refers to integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups. 'Competence' implies having the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.”

US Dept of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health

(Adapted from Cross, 1989)

concept of cultural humility
Concept of “cultural humility”

“[C]ulturalcompetence in clinical practice is best defined not by a discrete endpoint but as a commitment and active engagement in a lifelong process that individuals enter into on an ongoing basis with patients, communities, colleagues, and with themselves ….

This training ….is a process that requires humility as individuals continually engage in self-reflection and self-critique as lifelong learners and reflective practitioners."

“Cultural Humility Versus Cultural Competence,” Melanie Tervalon, Jann Murray-García (pdf)

  • Has someone from a different back-ground or another culture ever had the wrong first impression of you?
  • Have you ever had a wrong first impression of someone who had a different background or came from another culture?
listening leadership

Listening Leadership

Susan Allan, MD, JD, MPH

listening is not the same as hearing
Listening is Not the Same as Hearing

Listening requires focus.  

  • Paying attention not only to the story, but how it is told
  • The use of language, voice, and body
  • Being aware of both verbal and non-verbal messages
  • A good listener will listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left unsaid or only partially said.


why is listening so difficult
Why is Listening so difficult?

The major barrier to successful interpersonal communication:

Our natural tendency is to evaluate from our own frame of reference, and approve or disapprove of what another person is saying.

This is particularly the case when the topic is linked to strong emotions.

(Carl Rogers)

listening skills start with paying attention
Listening skills start with paying attention.

Listeners must be aware of their own filters, judgments, reactions, and thoughts

  • acknowledge the presence of these potential distracters
  • then consciously choose to set them; this allows a focus wholly on the speaker.
listening skills for leaders
Listening Skills for Leaders
  • Read Between the Lines
    • Listen also to the tone of voice, body language and facial expressions.
  • Paying Respect
    • Listen to establish trust and rapport
  • Pay Attention
    • Be deliberate about listening – difficult if topic not of interest
  • Using Feedback
    • Ask for feedback, listen to that feedback and then use that feedback. Create an environment where people feel comfortable sharing critiques and concerns
Principles of Listening “If we were supposed to talk more than we listen, we would have two tongues and one ear.” Mark Twain

1. Stop Talking

Do not interrupt, talk over them or finish their sentences for them.  Stop, just listen.

2. Prepare Yourself to Listen

Relax.  Focus on the speaker. 

3. Put the Speaker at Ease

Show you are listening and understanding what is being said.

4. Remove Distractions

Focus on what is being said.

5. Empathize

Look at issues from their perspective.  Let go of preconceived ideas.   


principles of listening continued
Principles of Listening continued

6. Be Patient

A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished.  

7. Avoid Personal Prejudice

Try to be impartial.  Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.

8. Listen to the Tone

Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. 

9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words

Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. 

10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication

Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important.  We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes


sier formula each step combines to form dynamic listening behavior
SIER Formula Each step combines to form dynamic listening behavior.


- using your 5 senses to receive a message. You hear it, see it, touch it, taste it, and even smell it. Your radar must be keen to pick up the many messages that come into your path.


- arriving at an understanding of what the message means after you have Sensed it.

Encouraging the speaker to continue, asking questions and seeking the main point are a few of the skills that are used to Interpret.


- includes the ability to analyze the evidence before jumping to a conclusion. Poor listeners make snap judgments and jump to false conclusions. Great listeners are responsible and disciplined to withhold making a judgment until they fully understand the message.


- responding to the speaker verbally or non-verbally to let them know that the message has gotten through and is understood.

Dr. Richard K. (Rick) Bommelje