ECE 2100. The Function Generator and the Oscilloscope. Dr. Len Trombetta. Sinusoid Basics. General form of the sinusoid:. V m is the amplitude f is the frequency f is the phase 2V m = V pp (peak-to-peak). v(t) = V m sin(2 p f t + f ) [V].
ECE 2100 The Function Generator and the Oscilloscope Dr. Len Trombetta
Sinusoid Basics General form of the sinusoid: • Vm is the amplitude • f is the frequency • f is the phase • 2Vm = Vpp (peak-to-peak) v(t) = Vm sin(2pf t + f) [V] We usually write w= 2pf, and w is the angular frequency. But note that what you set on the function generator is f, not w. v(t) Vm Vpp t
Sinusoid Basics A sinusoid may also have a dc offset. v(t) = Vm sin(2pf t) [V] + Vdc v(t) Vdc 0 t
Function Generator Let’s explore basic function generator properties... Power
Displays and Output The default setting is 1 [kHz], displayed here… …and 100 [mV] peak-peak amplitude, displayed by pressing this button. You won’t get an output until you press “Output”. scope BNC to BNC Next, connect Output to the oscilloscope using a BNC-to-BNC cable.
Oscilloscope The oscilloscope displays input signal as voltage vs. time. Voltage time From Function Generator Power (You don’t have these inputs.)
Scale Factors Horizontal scale factor (in sec/Div) Vertical scale factor (in Volts/Div) scale factor adjustments 20 mV/ 500 uS/ T Vpp f = 1/T Change the scale factors to see how the display is changed on the ‘scope. Convince yourself that the signal frequency and amplitude are what is stated on the function generator display.
Waveform (Function) Step through the functions to observe each one. A ramp with a 50% asmmetry is a triangle wave…
Amplitude v(t) = Vm sin(2pf t) [V] v(t) To adjust the amplitude: Vm t Use the keypad and the Vpp* button… …or… …the wheel and the “ten’s place” buttons. * Note that this button generally sets the “0 – peak” amplitude, not the “peak-peak” amplitude. It selects “peak-peak” only if the load is 50 W.
Frequency v(t) = Vm sin(2pf t) [V] v(t) To adjust the frequency: t Use the keypad and the Hz, kHz, or MHz button… T T = 1/f …or… …the wheel and the “ten’s place” buttons.
dc Offset v(t) = Vm sin(2pf t) [V] + Vdc v(t) To adjust the offset: Vdc Use the keypad and the Vpp* button… 0 t …or… …the wheel and the “ten’s place” buttons. * This procedure will give you twice the offset you key in, unless the load is 50 W.
Coupling Whether or not you observe the dc component on the scope depends on the coupling. 1. Select whichever channel your signal is connected to. 2. Toggle through the coupling options: dc: dc AND ac components are displayed. ac: only the ac component is displayed.
The “T” Connector output connected to BNC “T” The three BNC connectors are in parallel, effectively providing two FGEN outputs. Typically one will go to the scope and the other will be your circuit input. scope circuit input
RMS Measurements Another way to characterize the amplitude of a periodic waveform is the rms (root-mean-square) amplitude: When set to measure ac voltage or current, the Agilent automatically displays rms. If v(t) is a sine or cosine (sinusoid), then
Fun With Speakers! Play with the speakers by connecting one output to the speaker and one to the ‘scope. Observe the effects of amplitude and frequency. speaker What happens to the sound if you change the wave-form (sine/triangle/square)? oscilloscope
Triggering Trigger Menu Trigger Level External Trigger connection When the oscilloscope is properly triggered, the image is “stable” because it is displayed the same way each time it sweeps across the screen. If the triggering is not correct, the image looks garbled , like it is “running” across the screen. For more info: www.egr.uh.edu/courses/ece/ece2100/Trigger_Controls.pdf
External Triggering • An external trigger signal is provided by the SYNC output of the function generator. This provides a square wave of 1Vpp amplitude at the frequency of the MAIN waveform. So as long as your signal is coming from MAIN, the scope knows exactly when to trigger!