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Introduction to Science: The Scientific Method. What is Science?. The knowledge obtained by observing natural events and asking questions that can be tested leading to the discovery of facts and the formation of theories, principles, or laws.

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what is science
What is Science?
  • The knowledge obtained by observing natural events and asking questions that can be tested leading to the discovery of facts and the formation of theories, principles, or laws.
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Flickr user Pam Sutton | Scottsdale, Arizona

Wisdom begins in wonder. ~ Socrates

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Flickr user Karen A. NcQuilkin | View a larger image and leave a comment

The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes. ~ Marcel Proust

what is the scientific method
What is the Scientific Method?
  • Step-by-step way in which scientists answer questions.
  • 1. Ask a question.
  • 2. Research the topic.
  • 3. Form a hypothesis.
  • 4. Test the Hypothesis.
  • 5. Gather Data.
  • 6. Analyze Results.
  • 7. Draw Conclusions.
  • 8. Communicate Results.
make an observation ask a question
Make an observation/Ask a question
  • Develop a clear statement defining the problem or observation---turn it into a question
  • Make sure your question is specific and testable
  • Statement/observation: I want to go swimming in a lake, but I don’t know which lake is cleaner.
  • Is Jordanelle cleaner water for swimming or is Deer Creek cleaner water for swimming?
research
Research
  • Write down all information you already know
  • Do research in books on the topic you are investigating
  • Ask experts on the subject you are researching
  • If you find an answer to your problem/question you do not need to move on
what is a hypothesis
What is a hypothesis?
  • A prediction of what might be discovered in an experiment.
  • “Educated Guess”
  • “If… then…will…because” Statement
how do you test a hypothesis experiment
How do you test a hypothesis?Experiment…
  • Develop a test or experiment to prove or disprove your hypothesis
    • Must be run multiple times
    • Must have only 1 independent variable (the factor being tested
    • Must include 2 setups
      • Experimental setup
      • Control setup
what are the parts of an experiment
What are the parts of an experiment?
  • Use a Controlled Experiment
    • An experiment that tests only one factor at a time by using a comparison of a control group and an experimental group.
  • Control Group
    • The group that the scientist changes nothing in.
  • Experimental Group
    • The group that the scientist has changed something. It is the variable in the experiment.
what is a variable
What is a variable?
  • The factor that is different from one group to another.
  • Independent variable
    • The factor that the scientist has changed in order to test the hypothesis.
  • Dependent Variable
    • The result of what the scientist changed. What happened in the experiment/ What is measured.
what are constants
What are constants?
  • They are what the scientist kept the same in both the control group and the experimental group.
how can you gather data
How can you gather data?
  • Make Observations.
    • Any use of the senses to gather information.
  • Qualitative Observations
    • Anything that you see, smell, touch, taste, or hear.
    • Ex. Blue, bitter, fizzing sound.
  • Quantitative Observations
    • Any observation that can be measured.
    • Must include a number.
    • Ex. 5 centimeters long
how can you analyze results to determine patterns
How can you analyze results to determine patterns?
  • Record Data
    • Write observations and measurements
    • Be consistent when you are checking your experiments and recording the results
    • Create tables or charts (Data Tables and Pie Charts)
  • Create graphs from collected Data (Line Graphs, Bar Graphs)
    • Complete all necessary mathematical calculations
how can you draw conclusion s the summary of an experiment based on the data
How can you draw conclusions?The summary of an experiment, based on the data.
  • Answer the following questions in paragraph form (Always explain in detail using scientific vocabulary.):
    • Do your results/data support your hypothesis? Why or why not? (Accept or reject your hypothesis)
    • What are ways you can improve your data?
    • What would you do differently if you were to repeat the experiment?
how would you communicate results
How would you communicate results?
  • Share data and information with others, such as scientists.
  • Publish your findings in a book, magazine, journal, the internet.
let s try
Let’s try!
  • Airplanes
  • Boats
  • Plants
let s try1
Let’s try!
  • Six bean plants are to be tested to see what happens if light is taken away. The all have the same type of container, the same amount of soil, and they will receive the same amount of water. Three will be placed in a sunlit window and 3 will be placed in a dark closet for 2 weeks.
what are scientific models
What are scientific models?
  • Model
    • A representation of an object or system.
      • Physical Models
      • Mathematical Models
      • Conceptual Models
what is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law
Theory

An explanation that ties together many hypotheses and observations.

Supported by repeated trials.

May help with further predictions.

Tells why it happens.

Law

A summary of many experimental results and observations.

Tells how things work

Only tells what happens, it does not explain why.

What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law?