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n. Evidence for Evolution. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Haeckel_Prosobranchia.jpg.
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As European civilization grew its people had the curiosity and ambition to explore the edges of the Earth, and across vast oceans and in distant lands they found amazing creatures at once incredibly different to those at home, and yet remarkably the same. There was no explanation for such magnificent diversity and enduring similarity until one man, visiting distant isles, had an incredible revelation . . .
The process by which species and populations change over time
Decent with modification . . .
Pojeta, John Jr. and Dale A. Springer 2001
Sedimentary rock layers are formed sand grain by sand grain, gravel bit be gravel bit, until a new layer of rock is formed, new layers form on top of older layers, and so the youngest layers are always at the top of a rock formation and the oldest at the bottom.
Interesting to know: Steno was one of the first to recognize fossils when in 1667 recognized the similarity of “tongue stones” to sharks teeth
Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah
Ayala, Francisco J et al., 2008
http://science.howstuffworks.com/carbon-14.htm/ and http://sps.k12.mo.us/jms/cartoon.htm and http://www.ipj.gov.pl/en/szkolenia/glossaryEN.htm
Fossils can show homologies between species that show a common ancestor (as can comparative anatomy)
Homologies are structures two or more species have in common though they may not be used for the same purpose
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6024&page=14 and http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Handskelett_MK1888.png
Whereas useless in this circumstance, these rudiments... have not been eliminated, because Nature never works by rapid jumps, and She always leaves vestiges of an organ, even though it is completely superfluous, if that organ plays an important role in the other species of the same family.
–Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1798
Blind Mole Rat: Can’t see a thing with their eyes covered by skin flaps, but still has eyes
Ostriches: still have wings, but cannot fly
Coccyx: the tailbone of a human, a vestigial attribute from our tailed ancestors
Whale: Note the bones labeled “c,” they are the vestigial memory of hind legs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vestigial and http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1166/1186161894_7f69d19604.jpg?v=0
All living organisms share common structures for DNA, RNA, and the 20 amino acids
Ayala, Francisco J et al. 2008. Science, Evolution, and Creationism. The National Academies Press. National Academy of Science and Institute of Medicine. Washington D.C.
Bowler, Peter J. 2003. Evolution: The History of an Idea. University of California Press. Berkley
Gardner, Robert. 2005. Genetics and Evolution Science Fair Projects. Enslow Publishers. Berkeley Heights. 123-124
Krukonis, Greg and Tracy Barr. 2008. Evolution for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Larson, Edward J. 2004. Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory. The Modern Library. New York
Hilaire, Geoffroy.1798. "Observations surl'aile de l'Autruche, par le citoyenGeoffroy", La Decade Egyptienne, Journal Litteraire et D'EconomiePolitique 1 (pp. 46–51). Embedded in < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vestigial#cite_note-3>
Pojeta, John Jr. and Dale A. Springer. 2001. Evolution and the Fossil Record. American Geological Insitute. Alexandria, Virginia <agiweb.org>
Taylor, Paul D. 2000. Eyewitness Books: Fossil. Dorling Kindersley. London