Reflexion Guide about intercultural education 5D Fifth Dimension - Local learning communities in a global world Authrs: Isabel Crespo García Txell Portell Llenas Sílvia Camps i Soler Assistants: Àlex Pigemn Adolfo Pizzinato
Introduction This guide is meant to encourage thinking about the conceptions and practices of intercultural education. Thus, we shall start with a few general questions: What do you think about cultural differences? How do you believe that different educational contexts can approach them? And under what premises? Follow us if you will, and we shall comment some of our proposals, based on concrete examples.
Introduction The following pages will show a series of subjects that we have considered important to approach intercultural education. Each subject presents a number of questions and reflections based on a concrete situation. There is no predetermined path. You can follow the guide for each one of the subjects, or choose those you find particularly interesting. Would you like to come? Distractions Resistances Role Definition Redesigning tasks Different waysto help Creating the activity together
Distractions How hard is it to work with kids so easily distracted! What a waste of time we feel when they don’t cooperate! Perhaps together we can think of a few tricks that should help us cope with these situations successfully, right? Example 1 Example 2
Distractionsexample 1 Transcripción: Educator: The first must be a capital letter, ok? And you have it by pressing here. Look, no, no, no, just a moment. Look, Aaron, here. You were doing fine. Then the “s”, and ooppss, ok, very good. (there is a noise and the kid turns back) Child: What happened?
Distractionsexample 1 • Have you been in situations like these before? • In your opinion, why does the kid turn and leave the task? • What do you think should be the response of this educator? • What are the implications of the fact that educators respond in one way or another?
Possible Answers Transcripción: Educator: Because it’s windy and the door was closed (the kid jokes and the educator tickles him in the stomach) E: Don’t you have tickles? (the boy smiles) E: Oh, they come afterwards E: Ok, “H” And now “E”, “SHE”… “RE” Needs an “R” And an “E” C: the “I” E: No, no, an “e”. It’s not sheri
Possible Answers • This boy was on a task. He was writing a letter and was distracted. The educator reacts and: • Respects the boy (understanding his reaction as tiredness) • Tries to help him relax • And they retake the activity more enthusiastically Go toexample 2 Go to Thinking about
Distractionsexample 2 Transcripción: Educator: Ema (they both turn around as they hear a noise, the educator smiles as she sees the kid’s reaction) E: Aaron Child: It’s given away! E: That one seems to be “ot el bruixot”. Then we’ll see if we can go to that one C: I want to play that one… E: Ok, let’s finish the letter, aaron, and we’ll see if we get there… (the kid keeps staring at that game) E: It’s cool, isn’t it? (she smiles and leaves a space so that the kid can look at the screen). E: Aaron, let’s finish this letter really quick so that we can start playing, we are running out of time…
Distractionsexample 2 • What do you think about the educator’s reaction? • What would you highlight as essential in order to get a response from the child? • Would you say there are other ways to proceed in this case?
Possible Answers • We think that the educator’s response is interesting because: • Respects the kid’s reaction and does not take distraction as negative. • Tries to support what she is doing at every step • Tries to find common objectives between them Go to example 1 Go to Thinking about
Thinking about... distractions • Through these examples we have seen the importance of aspects like: • The adult-child relationship is shaped by an interactive process. We may get close, work on common objectives, create a mutual trust that may help in moments of conflict about the tasks. • How do we perceive the other, and how do we read her actions? As we have seen, often the educator’s responses come from the explanations about other’s behavior. • Children paces. Not all the children have the same pace in front of a task. Some get more easily tired than others, or need more time to think. We believe it is interesting to keep this fact in mind when interpreting their responses towards tasks.
Thinking about... distractions • In order to solve the conflicts that entail distractions, we think it would be worth to: • Share all the moments of the activity with the children • Build the activity together, what are we going to do, what is it we seek. • Work on the interpersonal relationship, at verbal as well as non-verbal level of communication. Distractions Resistances Role Definition Redesigning tasks Different waysto help Creating the activity together Thinking about Example 1 Example 2
Resistances Have you ever worked with a kid that seems tired and unwilling to cooperate? Of course you have! And it is not always easy to regain his attention, motivation, will, etc. Right? Perhaps we could share some ideas here… Example 1 Example 2
Resistancesexample 1 Transcripción: Educator: “Encantada” is with an “e”, right? Child: You write it. (the educator writes with a serious expression in her face) E: “E”, “N”, “C”, “A”, “N”, “T”, “A”, “D” And now comes the “A”, alright? “Encantada” C: And that’s it E: Very good, but why, do we explain why? C: That’s all (she rests back tired) E: That’s all?
Resistancesexample 1 • Have you noticed the expression of the educator? How do you think our own weariness may influence the situation? • How would you feel about the kid’s attitude? • What do you think would be the best possible response from the educator in this case? • Why do you think the kid acts in this way?
Possible Answers Transcripción: Educator: Is that it? And another game, is there another game that you’ve liked? Or is this one the one you have liked the most of all? (the kid stands away from the computer) Child: Nooo, I want to play another not. E: So what? Shall we tell shere rom what do we recommend other kids to play here at la casa? Yes? (The child holds his head with his hands and says “no”) E: Nooo, i’m exhausted. Should we say hi and good bye to shere rom??? Don’t you want to say more? (the kid refuses with his head, gets closer to the computer and starts typing)
Possible Answers • Facing the kid’s resistance to follow the task, we believe that the educator’s response is: • To respect the children’s rhythm • Not to demand more effort • To end the task • Do you think that if the companion had demanded more participation of the kid in This activity it would have worked out? Go to example 2 Go to Thinking about
Resistancesexample 2 Transcripción: (the educator takes a task card and as the girl approaches the computer says) Educator:Come on! Child: You read! (in a cutting tone, and leaves the computer)
Resistancesexample 2 • What do you think will be the educator’s answer? • Why does the girl tell her “you read”? • How would you manage the reencounter?
Possible Answers Transcripción: Educator: Let’s see, let’s read a little. On the top. (The educator points at the girl where to start) E: Come on. Only a little. Come one carmen, you can do it so well. (Two minutes later) Child: yes, yes. If you make it you will move on to another adven…ture C: More complicated. Th… ink E: Think C: well about all the movements and if you miss, co … me E: Come back C: and try all the timos you need. Go on to the world of boxes (the girl reads with some difficulties and makes up some words) E: Alright, alright. Very good. Do you know how it goes? C: No
Possible Answers What would you say about the educator’s response? True enough, the kid reads, but do you believe she contributes to the situation or to her learning process? Do you have any ideas on how to have the girl read while getting results from her reading? Go to example 1 Go to Thinking about
Thinking about... resistances • Aspects to evaluate in situations of resistance… • How do you feel at that moment? It’s important to analyze the situation as persons, not only as educators. To consider their feelings as our own has an influence on the situation. • How does the other feel? Stand on the other’s feet and wonder why is he acting as he is, consider him a valid interlocutor, respect his answers and his learning pace. • How are you interpreting the situation? We find suggesting to examine the situation from several points of view. What are the children’s objectives? What are the educator’s objectives?... Work through communication to find closeness. Distractions Resistances Role Definition Redesigning tasks Different waysto help Creating the activity together Thinking about Example 1 Example 2
Role definition • How do we act in a teaching-learning situation? • How do the others influence our ways of acting? • Can we change, test or act in different ways? • Let us discuss the roles of the educator and the apprentice in teaching/learning situations? • Are they predefined roles? Or on the contrary, do they change as the situation develops? Example 1 Example 2
Role definitionexample 1 Transcription: Educator: Come, come…this is the word…it’s a secret (a collaborator moves towards the educator and the child and says) Collaborator: Secret! That’s the word! Child: I haven’t said it (The collaborator leaves) E: oh, since it says “secret” I though it was another one. (The child turns to the computer and approaches the keyboard) E: type it. Wait, let me get closer…type it, type it.
Role definition example 1 • What draws our attention in this situation? • What has been the role of each participant? • What are the effects their performances have on one another? • How does the fact that the educator acknowledges his mistake influence the situation?
Possible Answers • In this video we can see that the educator recognizes that she has mistaken, which implies a new definition of the expert’s role. Such definition: • Helps the kid to see the other as a close interlocutor with whom she can negotiate the activities. • Helps the adult leave some responsibility to the child. • Questions conventional models of relationship so that the activity turns flexible and promoter of new relationships. Go to example 2 Go to Thinking about
Role definitionexample 2 Transcripción: Child: It’s your turn now Educator: Not really C: Yes E: And why are we starting again? I don’t get it (she looks straight to the kid when he talks) C: I don’t know…it’s your turn, come on. E: Is it? I don’t know how does it go (she throws) C: You passed two E: Two what…one is plain, and the other? C: Why should I know? E: So i take the plain ones, now is your turn (she handles the mouse on to the kid) C: No, it’s your turn again E: No (Continue)
Role definitionexample 2 Transcripción: C: Yes (she holds on to the mouse) E: Am i with the plain ones? C: Yes E: Where should i go? C: Yellow, I think (the educator tries again) C: Now it’s my turn, Ah! I’ve beaten you (the educator got the black one in) E: Oh! That’s not right man!
Role definitonexample 2 • What is each of them doing in this situation? • What are their roles? • What do they do to agree on each one’s role? • Is there anything that draws our attention?
Possible Answers • In this case we can see how the roles have switched and it is the boy the one leading the activity as the expert. In this way, the activity turns into something new and each one of them plays a role different from the usual. • This allows new learning forms, as new ways to define oneself. The kid, for instance, can see himself as the “bearer of something” and as “compentent”. Go to example 1 Go to Thinking about
Thinking about... role definition • We can see roles from two different perspectives: • As predefined and static ways to act. • As a joint production of all the participants of a teaching/learning situation. • To see them from the second viewpoint makes possible: • An active and critical participation of everyone involved. • For all to participate in the definition of the task. • To transform the activity in something meaningful. • The appropriation of the activity Distractions Resistances Role Definition Redesigning tasks Different waysto help Creating the activity together Thinking about Example 1 Example 2
Different ways to help There are different ways to help someone in a teaching/learning process. Do you think that “the how” is irrelevant as long as the task is carried out? Although everyday we use the most diverse forms of help in the educational activities, these are not similar. The videos are meant to follow two situations with the same educator. Both situations offer different alternatives to help. In your view, what distinguishes them? . Example 1 Example 2
Different ways to helpexample 1 Transcripción: (Here, the educator and the girl are playing a game called “A world of boxes”. There is a small labyrinth with some boxes and some dots. The player has to place each one of the boxes on the dots … in this shot, the educator and the child are trying to sort out one screen of this game) Educator: Well, alright, let’s go for the next (she presses a button on the keyboard to go to the next screen). Child: Oh, we are starting with this one. E: You’ve got to try it (she leaves the instructions and pays attention to the game) C: Oh, no. (She made a mistake) E: Let’s go back C: Oh god. Again (Seems a little disappointed at the game) (Continue)
Different ways to helpexample 1 Transcripción: E: That’s it (she picks up the mouse and fixes it). E: Now you can go up C: No (she comments on the game) E: Very well, very well. You push as you move up, an dwhen you move down,very good. C: Shit, some mess I’m in, am I not? E: Now from inside…now go up and you’ll leave more space for the others. That’s it, very good. C: Yeah, miss, but…there E: Ok, now you have to do it with the other two. C: (achu) E: Little by little … let’s see another, very good. C: Oh, I’m messing it up. I don’t even know what to do. E: Well, it’s a machine, isn’t it? (the girls keeps on playing as the educator writes something down in the passport) (Continue)
Different ways to helpexample 1 Transcripción: C: So … do I hit it (referring to the toy, she shuts her own mouth) E: Let’s see, push this backwards (she helps the girl and follows her attentively). E: This is backwards C: But where am I going? Let’s see E: Very good, then… C: Yes! She only says “good, very good, yes” (talking to the educator)
Different ways to helpexample 1 • Have you ever been in a situation like this? • Did you adopt a similar attitude? • What other attitudes do you think that the educator could have adopted in the activity?
Possible Answers In this situation we can see how the educator focuses on the interaction with the girl so that carrying out the task seems to be the main objective. Do you think that there is a proper evaluation of the learning process? The task is important, of course, but what about the development possibilities of the girl? Go to example 2 Go to Thinking about
Different wasy to helpexample 2 Transcripción: (Here, the educator and the girl are playing a game called “A world of boxes”. There is a small labyrinth with some boxes and some dots. The player has to place each one of the boxes on the dots … in this shot, the educator and the child are trying to sort out one screen of this game) Child: I hit it, I hit it…ouch, how do I move that one? No…It doesn’t stop. Educator: Try this…if it’s going upwards you won’t be able to move it, you see? It stays there? C: Yes E: So what then, what do we do? C: Push it E: How about turning it around? (the girl follows the educator’s suggestion) E: That’s better C: Oh! What a shit with this payo… E: We have a little problem now. How do we take it down? C: Yes (Continue)
Different ways to helpexample 2 Transcripción: E: How does it come down? Wait (she takes de mouse and pushes a button) E: If you turn it and push one? And then move this one as you did before, just like with the other one. (the girl follows these suggestions but finds difficulties to move the avatar in the game) C: So I hit it, let’s see… (the girl makes an interesting move by herself) E: Very good, that’s it C: But I’m all messed up here E: Olé… C: You turn around, then hit it, shhh shhh. See? I’m all messed up. E: Very good.
Different ways to helpexample 2 • What has changed in this situation related to the first one? • Do you believe the educator adopted the right attitude in this situation? Why? • In which aspects could we say that this situation is more participative than the first?
Possible Answers Here we see an important change in the educator’s attitude, as she decides to develop a joint strategy to face the difficulties of the proposed task. Do you believe that such stand can affect the development of the girl, compared to the first situation? Go to example 1 Go to Thinking about
Thinking about... different ways to help What are the implications of the two different responses used in the examples? As they illustrate, there are two basic forms to help a student in her educational process: either direct or participative. Both can be commonly used by the same educator. We would like to show how an educator may use different strategies. Nobody is absolutely participative nor absolutely directive in his educational practice. These are strategies that should be used depending on the perspective behind the practice. An educational practice more focused on the “results” of the activities tends to be more directive, as it is shown in the first example. And an educative practice more committed to “processes” tends to be more participative. Distractions Resistances Role Definition Redesigning tasks Different waysto help Creating the activity together Thinking about Example1 Example 2
Creating the activity together Are you trying to work together with your students and all you get is repetitions of what you say? Do they sometimes seem not to know what to do? Some of these answers may be related to the settled educational dynamics. Are you tired of the dynamics in your class? Would you like to try other ways to teach your students? How could you do so? Example 1 Example 2
Creating the activityexample 1 Transcripción: Educator: Alright, look, i tell you the letters and … Child: I’ll say the letters (a collaborator brings a sheet of paper with the right direction) Collaborator: here you have it big, ok? And green too E: Alright (holding the paper) C: I say it and you write it, ok? E: Ok
Creating the activity example 1 • The educator and the child are trying to finish a task, but the kid refuses to go on: • Have you been in a situation like this? • What would you do at this point? • What implications does it have to respond in one way or another?
Possible Answers Transcripción: Educator: First i get here, you see? In the first line, ok? Aaron look, the first line with the bar is the one you are sending it to…the first line is to write the address like this, let’s see. Child: Yes C: “c” E: LET’S SEE N: “o” (the educator goes on typing the letters) N: “I” E: “L” N: “e” “s” “h” “e” “r” “e” “r” “o” “m”. What is this one? E: That’s what we call “at” and you mark it by pressing here, in “control” and then in “alt” and then below the 2, the one with an “a” wrapped. We click there and look (she turns because someone tells her something) E: And what else?
Possible Answers • To tackle the difficulties that the boy was showing to go on with the task (reading a text), the educator: • Respects the child • Reminds the objectives of the activity • They share the realization of the activity Go to example 2 Go to Thinking about
Creating the activityexample 2 Transcripción: Educator: the “J”, not with a “J” Child: I’m tired (starring at the computer) E: The “J”, VERY GOOD. Very good. (The boy goes on writing) E: “We have played” is without the “s”, ok? Ooppss, somebody erased it! C: I just pressed here (pointing at keyboard) E: Oohhh, macatchins. Well, let’s just do it in a minute, alright? (the boy reacts discouraged and tired to these words)
Creating the activity example 2 • Have you been in situations like this before? • What would you do at this point? • What do you think should the right response? • What are the implications of responding in one way or another?