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OSTEOLOGY BONES. 20. September 201 3 Friday. Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D . . INTRODUCTION TO OSTEOLOGY. Osteology ( Gk , osteon, bone, logos, science) branch of medicine concerned with the development and diseases of bone tissue The human skeleton 206 bones in adults .

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20. September2013 Friday

Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D.



Osteology (Gk, osteon, bone, logos, science)

branch of medicine concerned with the development and diseases of bone tissue

The human skeleton

206 bones in adults


The skeletal system may be divided into

  • 2functional parts:
  • The axial skeleton
  • head (cranium or skull)
  • neck (hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae)
  • trunk (ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum)
  • The appendicular skeleton
  • Limbs
  • including those forming the shoulde & pelvic girdles


one of the hardest structures of the animal body

calcification of its extracellular matrix

some elasticity

results from the organic matter

great rigidity

results from their lamellous structures and tubes of inorganic calcium phosphate

colorin a fresh state

pinkish-whiteexternally, deep red within.



sparse cells surrounded by an extracellular network/matrix



secrete proteins into the matrix.


Mature bone is composed of proteins and minerals.

60% the weight of the bone mineral

Rest- water & matrix.

90% of the matrix proteins collagen1/3 of the bone weight

very strong

forms bone, cartilage, skin, and tendons.

High resolution image of cortical bone and single collagen fibril (inset)


Mineralsof the matrix

Mainlycalcium phosphate & calcium carbonate

Embedded in the protein network

Providehardness and compressive strength.


Matrix maintained by osteocytes

Haversiansystems or osteons

concentric rings of osteocytes arranged around a central blood vessel.


Principal types of bone cells

Osteogenic cells






membranesurroundingthe bone tissue

provides a routeforthevasculatureandnervesupply.

participates in bone growthandrepair.


linesthe marrow cavity

active during bone growth, repair, and remodeling

covers trabeculaeof spongy bone

lines the inner surfaces of the central canals


CartilageSand Bones

  • The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones.
  • Cartilage
  • resilient, semirigid form of connective tissue
  • forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is required.

articulating of bones participating in a synovial joint capped with articular cartilage

provides smooth, low-friction, gliding surfaces for free movement


Blood vessels do not enter cartilage avascular

  • Diffusion
  • bone /cartilage in the skeleton
  • changes as the body grows
  • younger a person the more cartilage
  • bones of a newborn are soft and flexible because mostly composed of cartilage.

CartilageSand Bones

The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones.

The amount and kind of extracellular fibers in the matrix

depends on the type of cartilage.

Heavyweightbearing areas or areas prone to pulling forces

Morecollagenfibers, lessflexiblecartilage.


Functionsof cartilage

support soft tissues

provide a smooth, gliding surface for bone articulations at joints

enable the development and growth of long bones.


Typesof cartilage

  • 1. Hyaline
  • most common,matrix w/ moderate amount of collagen fibers articularsurfaces of bones
  • 2. Elastic
  • large number of elastic fibers external ear
  • 3. Fibrocartilage
  • limited number of cells &ground substance amidst substantial amount of collagen fibers intervertebral discs

Bones function as

  • supportive structures for the body
  • protectors of vital organs
  • reservoirs of calcium and phosphorus
  • levers on which muscles act to produce movement
  • containers for blood-producing cells


  • according to their shape gross anatomy
  • Long bones
  • tubular humerusin the arm
  • 3)Flat bones
  • protectivefunctions
  • flat bones of the cranium protect the brain
  • 2)Short bones
  • cuboidal
  • tarsus (ankle) carpus (wrist)

Classification of Bones

  • 4) Irregular bones
  • various shapes other than long, short, or flat
  • bones of the face

Classification of Bones

  • 5) Sesamoidbones
  • patella or knee cap
  • protect the tendons from excessive wear
  • often change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments.

Long bones develop by replacement of hyaline cartilage plate endochondral ossification

a shaft diaphysis - two ends epiphyses


a part of the diaphysis adjacent to the epiphyses.

Diaphysisencloses the marrow cavity.


2types of bones according to histological features

compact bone &spongy (trabecular) bone

relative amount of solid matter

#&size of the spaces they contain


All bones have a superficial thin layer of compact bone

  • around a central mass of spongy bone
  • except where the spongy boneis replaced by a medullary (marrow) cavity.
  • Spongy bone
  • found @ expanded heads of long bones +fills most irregular bones.
  • Compact bone
  • forms outer shell of all bones+shafts in long bones.

Bone Markings and Formations

  • Bone markings appear wherever tendons, ligaments, and fascias are attached or where arteries lie adjacent to or enter bones.
  • Other formations occur in relation to the passage of a tendon (often to direct the tendon or improve its leverage) or to control the type of movement occurring at a joint.

Bone Markings and Formations

  • Surfaces of the bones are not smooth.
  • Bones display elevations, depressions and holes.
  • The surface features on the bones are given names to distinguish and define them.

Vasculature and Innervation of Bones

  • Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels.
  • Veins accompany arteries.
  • Nerves accompany blood vessels supplying bones.


is supported on the summit of the vertebral column, and is of an oval shape, wider behind than in front.

It is composed of a series of flattened or irregular bones which, with one exception (the mandible), are immovably jointed together. It is divisible into two parts:

cranium, which lodges and protects the brain, consists of 8 bones

skeleton of the face,of 14


Occipital bone

at the back and lower part of the cranium

trapezoid in shape and curved on itself.

pierced by a large oval aperture, the foramen magnum,

cranial cavity communicates with the vertebral canal



Parietal Bones

form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium

each bone irregularly quadrilateral in form

external surface convex, smooth


Frontal Bone

@front of the skull. Forms theforehead.

Entersinto the formation of the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities.


Temporal Bones

at the sides and base of the skull.

consist of the pathway to the inner ear and contributes to the formation of the jaw with the mandible.


Sphenoid Bone

at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital.

median portion or body, two great and two small wings extending outward from the sides of the body, and two processes which project from it below.

supplies the bed for the pituitary gland(Sellaturcica; Turkishsaddle)


Ethmoid bone

exceedingly light and spongy

cubical in shape

at the anterior part of the base of the cranium

between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose

contributes to each of these cavities.


Cranial Fossae

Anterior cranial fossa

occupiedbytheinferior and anterior parts of

the frontal lobes of the brain

shallowest cranial fossa

Middle cranial fossa


central part composed of the sellaturcica on the body of the sphenoid

large, depressed lateral parts on each side

Posterior cranial fossa

largest and deepest cranial fossa

formed mostly by the occipital bone


Facial Bones

  • Nasal Bones
  • two small oblong bones, varying in size form in different individuals
  • placed side by side @ middle &upper part of the face
  • form, by their junction, “the bridge” of the nose.
  • Maxillæ(Upper Jaw)
  • largest bones of the face, excepting mandible
  • form the whole of the upper jaw.
  • Formthe boundaries of 3 cavities
  • roof of the mouth
  • floor and lateral wall of the nose
  • floor of the orbit

Facial Bones

Lacrimal Bone

smallest & most fragile bone of the face

at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit

ZygomaticBone (Malar Bone)

small and quadrangular

at the upper and lateral part of the face


prominence of the cheek

part of the lateral wall & floor of the orbit.


zygomaticprocess of the temporal bone temporal process of the zygomaticbone


Facial Bones

Palatine Bone

@ back part of the nasal cavity.

contributes to the walls of three cavities

floor and lateral wall of the nasal cavity

roof of the mouth

floor of the orbit.

Inferior Nasal Concha

extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.


Facial Bones


in the median plane

thin, somewhat quadrilateral in shape

forms hinder & lower part of the nasal septum.

Mandible (Lower Jaw)

largest and strongest bone of the face

serves for the reception of the lower teeth.


Facial Bones

  • Hyoid Bone
  • shaped like a horseshoe
  • suspended from the tips of the styloid processes of the temporal bones.

Ribs (L. costae)

  • curved flat bones
  • form most of the thoracic cage.
  • 3 types of ribs:
  • True (vertebrocostal) ribs (1st-7th ribs):
  • directly to the sternum.
  • False (vertebrochondral) ribs
  • (8th, 9th, and usually 10th ribs):
  • indirect withthesternum
  • Floating (vertebral, free) ribs
  • (11th, 12th, and sometimes 10th ribs):
  • No connectionwiththesternum

Typical ribs (3rd-9th) have the following components:

  • Head
  • one facet for articulation with the numerically corresponding vertebra
  • one facet for the vertebra superior to it
  • Neck
  • Tuberclearticulates with the corresponding transverse process of the vertebra.
  • Body (shaft)
  • .

Costal cartilages prolong the ribs anteriorly and contribute to the elasticity of the thoracic wall, providing a flexible attachment

  • for their anterior ends.

Intercostal spaces separate the ribs and their costal cartilages from one another.

  • The spaces are named according to the rib forming the superior border of the space—for example, the 4th intercostal space lies between ribs 4 and 5.
  • There are 11 intercostal spaces and 11 intercostal nerves. Intercostal spaces are occupied by intercostal muscles and membranes, and two sets (main and collateral) of intercostal blood vessels and nerves, identified by the same number assigned to the space.

G. sternon, chest

Has threeparts:

1. Manubrium

2. Body

3. Xiphoidprocess


Vertebral column

  • In an adult typically consists of 33 vertebrae arranged in five regions: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal.
  • The vertebrae gradually become larger as the vertebral column descends to the sacrum and then become progressively smaller toward the apex of the coccyx.

The change in size is related to the fact that successive vertebrae bear increasing amounts of the body's weight as the column descends.


The vertebrae reach maximum size immediately superior to the sacrum, which transfers the weight to the pelvic girdle at the sacroiliac joints.


The vertebral column is flexible because it consists of many relatively small bones, called vertebrae (singular = vertebra), that are separated by resilient intervertebral (IV) discs.


Vertebrae vary in size and other characteristics from one region of the vertebral column to another, and to a lesser degree within each region; however, their basic structure is the same.

  • A typical vertebra consists of a vertebral body, a vertebral arch, and seven processes.

vertebral body

  • anterior part of the bone that gives strength to the vertebral column and supports body weight.
  • vertebral arch
  • posterior to the vertebral body.
  • vertebral arch & posterior surface of the vertebral body form
  • walls of the vertebral foramen.

7 cervical vertebrae

    • characterized mainly by their small size and the presence of a foramen in each transverse process , bifidspinousprocess
  • 12 thoracic vertebrae characterized by their articulated ribs , spinousprocessprojectinginferiorly
  • five lumbar vertebrae,
  • characterized by their large size

Clavicle (Tr. Köprücükkemİğİ)

  • The clavicle (collar bone) connects the upper limb to the trunk.
  • The shaft of the clavicle has a double curve in a horizontal plane.

Clavicle (Tr. Köprücükkemİğİ)

  • Its medial half articulates with the manubrium of the sternum.
  • Its lateral half articulates with the scapula.
  • Thesecurvatures increase the resilience of the clavicle and give it the appearance of an elongated capital S.

Clavicle (Tr. Köprücükkemİğİ)

  • increases the range of motion of the limb.
  • affords protection to the neurovascular bundle supplying the upper limb.
  • transmits shocks (traumatic impacts) from the upper limb to the axial skeleton.

Scapula (Tr. Kürekkemiği)

  • shoulder blade
  • triangular flat bone
  • lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax.
  • has an articular surface; a glenoid cavity (G. socket) for the articulation with the head of the humerus.


  • largest bone in the upper limb
  • articulates with the scapula at the glenohumeral joint
  • articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint.
  • The proximal end of the humerus has a head, surgicaland anatomical necks, and greater and lesser tubercles.


sphericalhead of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula.

surgical neck of the humerus, a common site of fracture, is the narrow part distal to the head and tubercles.

distal end of the humerus makes up the condyle of the humerus.



The two forearm bones serve together to form the second unit of an articulated mobile strut (the first unit being the humerus), with a mobile base formed by the shoulder, that positions the hand.



  • stabilizing bone of the forearm
  • medial and longer of the two forearm bones.

Its more massive proximal end is specialized for articulation with the humerus proximally and the head of the radius laterally.


lateral and shorter of the two forearm bones.


Proximally, the head of the radius is concave for articulation with the humerus during flexion and extension of the elbow joint.

The head also articulates with the ulna.

The shaft of the radius, in contrast to that of the ulna, gradually enlarges as it passes distally.


The distal end of the radiusaccommodates the head of the ulna.

  • Itslateral aspect becomes increasingly ridge-like, terminating distally in the radial styloid process.

Bones of the hand

  • The wrist, or carpus, is composed of 8carpal bones (carpals)
  • proximal and distal rows of 4
  • Proximalsurfaces of distal row of articulate with proximal row
  • Distalsurfaces articulate with the metacarpals.


  • skeleton of the palm of the hand
  • between carpus & phalanges
  • 5 metacarpal bones (metacarpals)
  • Proximal bases articulate with the carpal bones
  • Distal heads articulate with the proximal phalanges (knuckles)

bones of the lower limb




Skeletonof the lower limb

inferior appendicular skeleton

two functional components

pelvic girdle

bones of the free lower limb



  • a ring of bones that connects the vertebral column to the two femurs.
  • Primary functions
  • bearing &transfer of weight
  • Secondary functions
  • protection and support of abdominopelvic viscera and housing attachment for structures of the genital and urinary systems

In the mature individual, the pelvic girdle is formed by three bones:

  • Right and left hip bones (coxal bones; pelvic bones): large, irregularly shaped bones, each of which develops from the fusion of three bones, the ilium, ischium, and pubis.

TheMatureHip Bone

  • (L. oscoxae)

large, flat pelvic bone formed

by the fusion of three primary bones

ilium, ischium, and pubis.


large cupshaped cavity or socket on the lateral aspect of the hip bone

  • articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.
  • All three primary bones forming the hip bone contribute to the formation of the acetabulum.


  • The wedged-shaped sacrum (L. sacred) is usually composed of five fused sacral vertebrae in adults.
  • It is located between the hip bones and forms the roof and posterosuperior wall of the posterior half of the pelvic cavity.
  • The sacral canal is the continuation of the vertebral canal in the sacrum.

Coccyx(tail bone)

  • Small triangular bone usually formed by fusion of the 4 rudimentary coccygeal vertebrae.Remnantof the skeleton of the embryonic tail-like caudal eminence.
  • Doesnot participate with the other vertebrae in support of the body weight when standing; however, when sitting it may flex anteriorly somewhat, indicating that it is receiving some weight.


  • Longestand heaviest bone in the body
  • Transmitsbody weight from the hip bone to the tibia when a person is standing.
  • Consistsof a shaft (body) and two ends, superior or proximal and inferior or distal.

Bones of the Leg

  • The tibia and fibula are the bones of the leg.
  • The tibia articulates with the condyles of the femur superiorly and the talus inferiorly and in so doing transmits the body's weight.
  • The fibula mainly functions as an attachment for muscles, but it is also important for the stability of the ankle joint.

Tibia (Shine bone)

on the anteromedial side of the leg, nearly parallel to the fibula

second largest bone

anterior border of the tibia -most prominent border.

tibia & adjacent medial surface subcutaneous throughout their lengths

commonly known as the “shin”

periosteal covering and overlying skin vulnerable to bruising.


Inferiorsurface of the shaft & lateral surface of medial malleolus articulate with the talus.

Interosseous membrane unites the two leg bones.

Inferiorly, the tibia articulates with the distal end of the fibula.

  • Tibia (Shine bone)


posterolateral to the tibia



no function in weight-bearing

serves mainly for muscle attachment.

distal end enlarges prolonged as lateral malleolus

proximalend an enlarged head superior to a small neck.


patella (knee cap)

largest sesamoid bone in the body

embedded in the quadriceps femoris tendon.

jointbetweenthepatellaandfemursharethesamearticularcavity w/ thejointbetweenfemur & tibia

patellar ligament connects the patella to the tibia.


Bones of the foot

Tarsus (7 bones)

Metatarsus (5 bones)

Phalanges (14 phalanges)



L., heel bone

  • Largestand strongest bone in the foot.
  • When standing, the calcaneus transmits the majority of the body's weight from the talus to the ground.

Bones of the foot

  • The metatarsus (anterior or distal foot, forefoot—) consists of five metatarsals that are numbered from the medial side of the foot.
  • The 14 phalanges are as follows: the 1st digit (great toe) has 2 phalanges (proximal and distal); the other four digits have 3 phalanges each: proximal, middle, and distal.