Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US, claiming one life every 33 seconds. . Risk Factors for CVD Established By American Heart Association. 1. Tobacco Use 2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) 3. Unhealthy Cholesterol Levels
SYSTOLE- period when the heart CONTRACTS
DIATOLE- when the heart RELAXES
BP = CO x PR
Where: CO is Cardiac Output
PR is Peripheral Resistance
When you have high blood pressure, the force of your blood moving through your blood vessels is TOO GREAT.
This makes your heart WORK HARDER than it’s supposed to in order to pump blood throughout your body.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are both produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands.
These hormones are produced during times of stress..such as fear or extreme exercise.
Result: Increase in contraction, heart rate and blood pressure.
The Recommended Daily Intake for sodium for one diagnosed with Hypertension is 1500mg/day
Sodium 1106 mg!! (74% daily)
As a precursor to many of the Sex Hormones
Excess cholesterol is generated via fat metabolism and carried out of blood vessels by lipoproteins- either High Density or Low Density.CHOLESTEROL
Arteries lose their elasticity.
The walls of the artery harden and become brittle.
These deposits narrow the artery and interfere with the normal flow of
blood through the
This makes the heart work harder, which, in turn, can
cause a heart attack or lead to blood
clots In the artery, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
Arteriosclerosis can also cause blood vessels to widen or rupture in an ane
Most affected are vital organs such as the heart and brain, and the legs,
arteries are vulnerable.Arteriosclerosis
How fat and plaque deposits on arteries can lead to arteriosclerosis and Hear Attack
Cross Section of a healthy artery. The inside of the artery is free and provides unobstructed flow of blood.
Arteries are gradually getting clogged by fatty deposits on the vessel wall. Note that the opening for the flow of blood is now reduced. But there is still space for blood to flow through.
Advanced hardening of the artery. Fatty deposits now clog most of the artery opening. But small amount of blood (shown in red) still flow through.
Blood clot (shown in blue) now blocks the small opening, cutting off the flow of blood completely. This leads to heart attack.
Based on concept that weight should be in proportion to height. It is accurate with health risk studies.
Calculate BMI: 1. Mult. Weight In Pounds by 704
2. Height in inches squared
3. Divide Answer in Step 1 by
the answer you calculated in # 2.
Exercise: can reverse a sedentarylifestyle; and is known to be “magic bullet” for healthy heart.
Lowers BP, raises HDLs, maintains healthy weight, prevents or helps control diabetes and improves the functioning of endothelial cells that line the coronary arteries.
A minimum of 30 to 60 minutes per day of moderate physical activity is recommended.
Exercise Mechanism: LOWERS VLDLs., raises HDLs (this is one)
Harms the CVS in several ways:
caused by a blood clot called a coronary thrombosis.
Angina Pectoris- chest pain- occurs when heart does not get enough oxygen..a warning sign that work load on heart should be reduced
Between 40 and 90% of all stroke patients had hypertension before prior to their stroke.Stroke
1. Ischemic -blockage in
in blood vessels
2. Hemorrhage- rupture of blood vessels