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Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US, claiming one life every 33 seconds. . Risk Factors for CVD Established By American Heart Association. 1. Tobacco Use 2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) 3. Unhealthy Cholesterol Levels

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cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US, claiming one life every 33 seconds.

Risk Factors for CVD Established By American Heart Association

  • 1. Tobacco Use
  • 2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
  • 3. Unhealthy Cholesterol Levels
  • 4. Physical Inactivity
  • 5. Obesity
  • 6. Diabetes
dicotomous functions for left right side of heart
Dicotomous Functions for Left & Right Side of Heart
  • Right Side : Collects oxygen-poor blood from the body and brain and pumps to the lungs where it picks up oxygen. This is called pulmonarycirculation.
  • Left Side: Collects oxygen-rich blood, which has just passed through the lungs, and pumps it to the rest of the body and brain. The is called systemiccirculation.
blood vessels
Blood Vessels
  • Arteries- Are have thick walls and are Elastic. They Carry blood away from the heart. Arteries become smaller arterioles and branch into capillaries.
  • Veins-Carry blood to the Heart. Veins become smaller venules and and connect with the capillaries
  • Capillaries - Exchanges between cells and nutrients/oxygen occur here only.
lub dub

SYSTOLE- period when the heart CONTRACTS

DIATOLE- when the heart RELAXES

critical factor concerning arteries elasticy
Critical Factor Concerning Arteries: ELASTICY
  • If arteries are HEALTHY, they are clear and very elastic. They can accommodate greater they S..T..R..E..T..C…H
  • Use equation for Pressure equals F/a to show this.
blood pressure
Blood Pressure

BP = CO x PR

Where: CO is Cardiac Output

PR is Peripheral Resistance

blood pressure1
Blood Pressure
  • We speak of arterial blood pressure in terms of two measurements; on and off. In other words when the heart contracts or is in SYSTOLE the arterial pressure is highest or at its peak. When the heart is relaxing or in DIASTOLE it BP is at the lowest .
  • BP is measured in ml. and the Brachial artery of arm is used for this test.
  • Blood Pressure is related to Cardiac Output times Peripheral Resistance ( the amount of friction encounter as blood tries to flow through the vessel)
listen to your numbers
Listen to your numbers
  • Your blood pressure can tell you a lot. A normal, healthy blood pressure for most adults is 120/80 mm Hg or lower. You have hypertension if your numbers are consistently 140/90 mm Hg or higher.

Age (years)

Systolic pressure (mmHg)

Diastolic pressure (mmHg)
















Table 1. Some 'average'

understand the pressure
Understand the pressure

When you have high blood pressure, the force of your blood moving through your blood vessels is TOO GREAT.

This makes your heart WORK HARDER than it’s supposed to in order to pump blood throughout your body.

sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic Nervous System

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are both produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands.

These hormones are produced during times of stress..such as fear or extreme exercise.

Result: Increase in contraction, heart rate and blood pressure.

factors affecting blood pressure
Factors Affecting Blood Pressure
  • Neural Factors: The Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Renal Factors ( Kidney)
  • Temperature
  • Chemicals (Nicotine, Alcohol, Histamine)
  • Diet (Na+)
why is too much sodium na bad
By reabsorbing NaCl, a hypertonic solution is created in the nephron thereby forming a gradient whereby water can passively enter via osmosis. The person retains water. The blood volume increases; hence its pressure is increased!Why is Too Much Sodium (Na) Bad?
no not me
NO……NOT ME!!!!!
how much sodium

The Recommended Daily Intake for sodium for one diagnosed with Hypertension is 1500mg/day

  • Low-Fat Cottage Cheese
  • Serving Size 1 cup
  • Cottage cheese has long been considered a go-to snack for those wanting to eat healthier. But one cup can account for more than half of your daily sodium intake
  • Sodium 918Ouch!
soup is good food but
Soup is Good Food ..BUT ….
  • Canned Chicken Noodle Soup (SOME BRANDS)
  • Serving Size 1 cup
  • As a quick and easy lunch, soup is a big favorite. But it’s also big on salt. .

Sodium 1106 mg!! (74% daily)


  • Choose lower sodium choices.
  • Add frozen vegetables to dilute salt…or cook your own.
Cholesterol is natural and essential component of cell membranes. It has several functions: Two examples:

Neuron Development

As a precursor to many of the Sex Hormones

Excess cholesterol is generated via fat metabolism and carried out of blood vessels by lipoproteins- either High Density or Low Density.

rfs for hypertention that we have no control over
RFs for HYPERTENTION: That We Have NO Control OVER
  • Age; Blood vessels lose elasticity as we age (partially because of accumulation of plaque) , men age 45; women after 55; (estrogen Protects women)
  • Ethnicity: More common among African Americans..than Caucasians and Latinos.
  • Family History; While you can’t control where your genes come from, you can decrease your risk for high blood pressure by maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
risk factors you can control
Risk factors you CAN control
  • Your weight: The more you weigh, the more you’re at risk for hypertension. That’s because excess weight increases the strain on your heart.
  • Your diet: A diet that’s high in calories, fats, and sugars and low in essential nutrients is directly related to poor health and obesity..
  • Your activity level: Being inactive not only increases your risk for hypertension, but also heart disease and stroke. Inactive people typically have higher heart rates at rest, and the higher it is, the harder your heart must work.
what you can do
What YOU can do :
  • Losing just 10 to 20 pounds ( If you are overweight) can help lower your blood pressure
  • Changing to a heart-healthy diet — one that includes healthier foods and low-sodium options — can help lower your high blood pressure.
  • Adding exercise and physical activity to your routine can make a big difference
ldls l is for lowly bad guys
LDLs: L is for “Lowly, Bad Guys”
  • Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) carry cholesterol from the liver to organs and tissues that require it. Excess amounts are deposited in the blood vessels where they may be oxidized by free radicals, speeding up inflammation and damage to artery walls and increase the likelihood of blockage.
hdl h is for healthy
HDL: H is for Healthy
  • High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) can really pack those cholesterol molecules on! They carry unused cholesterol back to the liver for recycling. Removing cholesterol from the blood vessels they protect against artheriolsclerosis and are known as “good”cholesterol.
Platelets play a role in

Clotting blood and repairing blood vessels.


Arteries thicken.

Arteries lose their elasticity.

The walls of the artery harden and become brittle.

These deposits narrow the artery and interfere with the normal flow of

blood through the


This makes the heart work harder, which, in turn, can

cause a heart attack or lead to blood

clots In the artery, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

Arteriosclerosis can also cause blood vessels to widen or rupture in an ane


Most affected are vital organs such as the heart and brain, and the legs,

yet all

arteries are vulnerable.


How fat and plaque deposits on arteries can lead to arteriosclerosis and Hear Attack Home]

No Obstruction

Partial Obstruction

Cross Section of a healthy artery. The inside of the artery is free and provides unobstructed flow of blood.

Arteries are gradually getting clogged by fatty deposits on the vessel wall. Note that the opening for the flow of blood is now reduced. But there is still space for blood to flow through.

Major Obstruction

Full Obstruction

Advanced hardening of the artery. Fatty deposits now clog most of the artery opening. But small amount of blood (shown in red) still flow through.

Blood clot (shown in blue) now blocks the small opening, cutting off the flow of blood completely. This leads to heart attack.

role of gender in cvd
Role of Gender in CVD
  • Women have produce more ESTROGENs
  • Estrogens protect women from CVD before menopause by lowering LDLs and raising HDLs.
  • Estrogens create the pear-shape in women.
  • Testosterones create the apple-shape in men. Fat is mobilized into blood more easily-bad,
  • Also, in high Testosterone, lowers HDLs. Sorry Guys!
rf obesity
  • Body weight of over 30%
  • Excess weight contributes to high LDLs, Hypertension and increasing strain on heart.
  • Associated with Hypertension, high cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, diabetes and physical inactivity.
  • Associated with endothelial cell dysfunction. Endothelial cells line the inside of the arteries. They help regulate blood flow and keep platelets from sticking to walls.
  • More weight causing strain on heart and leads to hypertrophy (enlargement of the organ) which can lead to its eventual failure,
  • Distribution of fat is an indicator of CVD-fat around torso is more dangerous than on hips
how is your weight are you over or under weight
How is Your Weight: Are You Over or Under Weight?

Based on concept that weight should be in proportion to height. It is accurate with health risk studies.

Calculate BMI: 1. Mult. Weight In Pounds by 704

2. Height in inches squared

3. Divide Answer in Step 1 by

the answer you calculated in # 2.

rf hypertension
  • High Blood Pressure or Hypertension occurs when too much force or pressure is exerted against the walls of the arteries. Too much pressure causes heart to work Over time the heart weakens and enlarges.
  • Increased blood pressure causes arteries to scar and harden; they become less elastic.
  • Eventually ARTERIOSCLEROSIS ensues which can lead to heart attack, stroke . Kidney Failure and damage to every organ in body is also possible due to hypertension.
rf inactivity

Exercise: can reverse a sedentarylifestyle; and is known to be “magic bullet” for healthy heart.


Lowers BP, raises HDLs, maintains healthy weight, prevents or helps control diabetes and improves the functioning of endothelial cells that line the coronary arteries.

A minimum of 30 to 60 minutes per day of moderate physical activity is recommended.

Exercise Mechanism: LOWERS VLDLs., raises HDLs (this is one)

rf diabetes
RF: Diabetes
  • Having diabetes doubles the risk for men and triples the risk for women for CVD.
  • Diabetics have higher rates of hypertension, obesity, and unhealthy blood lipid levels.
  • Elevated blood glucose levels that occur in diabetes can damage lining of arteries making them vulnerable to arteriosclerosis.
  • Diabetics often have platelet and blood coagulation abnormalities, setting them at risk for heart attack and stroke.
rf smoking

Harms the CVS in several ways:

  • Nicotine is a CNS stimulant, thereby increasing blood pressure and heart rate.
  • Carbon monoxide in smoke displaces oxygen in the blood and heart and other parts of body.
  • Smoking damages linings of arteries
  • Contributes to unhealthy blood fat levels by reducing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and raising triglycerides and LDLs.
  • Causes platelets to become sticky and cluster, forming Clots.
rf triglycerides
RF: Triglycerides
  • Factors contributing to high triglycerides in body: physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, very high,excess alcohol intake, very high carb diet, excess body fat and type 2 diabetes.
rf c reactive protein crp
RF: C-Reactive Protein(CRP)
  • This protein is released into the bloodstream in response to inflammation. Very promising statistics result from people who take Statins ( anti-inflammatory drugs) Theses reduce cholesterol and CRP levels and heart disease risk.
new risk factor rf homocysteine
  • An amino acid appears to damage the lining of blood vessels, resulting in inflammation and development of fatty deposits in the artery walls.
  • It can be lowered by eating a diet of fruits and veggies.
  • A protein essential for forming blot clots.
  • High levels of fibrinogen are linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Improving risk factors such as smoking, obesity, elevated lipids tends to decrease fibrinogen levels. Niacin, a B vitamin, can also reduce this factor.
myocardial infarction heart attack
Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)

caused by a blood clot called a coronary thrombosis.

Angina Pectoris- chest pain- occurs when heart does not get enough oxygen..a warning sign that work load on heart should be reduced

what is an aneurysm
What is an ANEURYSM?
  • When an artery is weakened, its wall becomes thinner and it can form a blood pocket that can burst.
  • When the blood-pocket or aneurysm bursts, a stroke may result. (only 20% of strokes are caused this way, however)
A stroke is a kind of brain injury that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly interrupted or a vessel bursts. How a stroke affects a person depends on the part of the brain in which the injury occurs. After a stroke, a person may have a weakness on one side of the body or trouble with moving, talking or thinking .

Between 40 and 90% of all stroke patients had hypertension before prior to their stroke.


1. Ischemic -blockage in

in blood vessels

2. Hemorrhage- rupture of blood vessels

coronary bypass surgery
The surgery involves sewing a section of vein from the leg or artery from the chest or another part of the body to bypass a part of the diseased coronary artery. This creates a new route for blood to flow, so that the heart muscle will get the oxygen-rich blood it needs to work properly.CORONARY BYPASS SURGERY
how manage risk factors for cvd
How Manage Risk Factors for CVD
  • Have Fish 2X a week ( Omega 3)
  • Cut down on Red Meat and all Saturated fats ( monitor your HDL/ LDL levels)
  • Manage the Stress in your life (Monitor BP)
  • Maintain a healthy BMI
  • Start an aerobic exercise program
  • Don’t smoke
some heart healthy diet
  • Let’s Think of some in class today