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2. Hazards Survey

2. Hazards Survey

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2. Hazards Survey

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  1. 2. Hazards Survey Suitable for identifying hazards for equipment design, layout, storage etc. Can be as simple as survey of inventory/stock of hazardous Chemical. Can be fairly rigorous/tough such as Dow Fire and Explosion Index (Dow F&EI). Requires little experience and gives quick result.

  2. Dow Fire and Explosion Index (Dow F&EI) Tailored for storage, handling and processing of explosive and flammable material in chemical processing industry (CPI). Systematic approach using rating form. Can be used at an early stage of a project and for audit of existing plant. Final rating number (i.e. F&E Index) will provide a relative ranking of the hazard. Could also estimate damage radius using Dow correlation. Can also estimate dollar/RM losses in the event of accident using consequences analysis form.

  3. Dow's Fire & Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, 7th Edition
American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)
ISBN: 0-8169-0623-8
Pub No: T-80
83 pages
June 1994
Purchase From Wiley • Description: This popular safety best-seller is designed to help the user quantify the expected damage of potential fire and explosion incidents in realistic terms, identify the equipment….

  4. Steps in Dow F&EI • Divide the process into separate units. • Select units that have highest likelihood of hazard (e.g. from process safety checklists). • Determine material factor (MF) from table (e.g. Table 10-1). • Higher MF means higher flammability and/or more explosive. • Determine Penalty Factor (F1) for general process hazards. • Determine Penalty Factor (F2) for special process hazards. • Calculate F&EI = (F1 x F2) x MF

  5. Penalty Factor (F1) for general process hazards • Exothermic reaction that might self heat. • Endothermic reaction that could react because of external heat source. • Material handling and transfer. • Enclosed process unit. • Limited access for emergency equipment. • Poor drainage and spill control.

  6. Penalty Factor (F2) for special process hazards 1. Toxic material that could impede/delay fire fighting • Less than atmospheric pressure- vacuum (outside air could leak into system) • Operation in/near flammability limit • Dust explosion risk • High pressure risk • Low temp operation that could lead to embrittlement (fragile) • Quantity of flammable material • Corrosion and erosion of process unit structures • Leakage around joints and packing • Used of fired heater (source of ignition) • Hot oil HEX (source of ignition) • Large rotating equipment

  7. Material Factor; MF

  8. Penalty Factors; F1 and F2

  9. The following example shows how this method is applied (Dow F&EI). • To carry out this, we need Dow F&EI index booklet for details in determining the penalties (F1 and F2)

  10. barrier Railcar

  11. Deluge/flood system Dike/dam/barrier

  12. Penalty Factor; F1 and F2

  13. Results F&EI = 106 and Table 10.2 gives Degree of Hazard = Intermediate Refer to Dow index booklet and based on this F&EI value, The radius of exposure = 90 ft Thus, the unloading facilities must be located a minimum of 90 ft from other equipment or processes.

  14. DOW Chemical Exposure Index (DOW CEI) • A simple method of rating the relative acute health hazard potential for people (communities) in neighboring plants arising from possible chemical release incidents.