Black Arts Movement AP Literature Poetry Presentation Itchel Coker John Misch Ignacio Salas Jezner Tapia Period 2
Definition of Movement • Created during the Civil Rights movement in the 1950’2 and 1960’s • Associated with the Black Power movement • Wanted for a faster pace to changes during the Civil Rights movement • Poems are a challenge, sometimes aggressive, to the White establishment • Political focus on civic change for racial equality • Associated with the Black Power notion and movement • Other Blacks to take up arms in poetry and fight in the war of the words • Popular food in the 1960s and 1970s were characterized with suburban, vegetarian, and ethnic bias
General Poetic Techniques & Themes • Tone • Repetition • Personification • Imagery • Theme: Opposition towards racial inequality • Diction • Symbolism • Allusion • Conceit • Assonance
Black Art Poets Nikki Giovanni AmiriBaraka Sonia Sanchez NtozakeShange
Poem Analysis#1: NtozakeShange • Was originally named Paulette Williams • Born on October 18, 1948 in Trenton, New Jersey • At age 8 moved to St. Louis • At age 13 moved back to New Jersey • Graduated Barnard College cum laude in American studies • Earned Master's degree at UCLA • Married and divorced in first year of college • Fails suicide and loses all hope in life • Jumps back up in 1971 and changes her name • Ntozake means “she who has her own things” and shange means “he/she who walks/lives with lions” Most Notable Works: People of Watts, you are sucha fool, I Live in Music (1994), Nappy Edges (1978) Plays: A Photograph: Lovers-in-Motion (1977), Three for a Full Moon (1982), Daddy Says (1989).
People of Watts by NtozakeShange where we come from, sometimes, beauty/ floats around us like clouds/ the way leaves rustle in the breeze/ and cornbread and barbecue swing out the backdoor/ and tease all our senses as the sun goes down/ dreams and memories rest by fences/ Texas accents rev up like our engines/ customized sparkling powerful as the arms/ that hold us tightly black n fragrant/ reminding us that once we slept and loved/ to the scents of magnolia and frangipani/ once when we looked toward the skies/ we could see somethings as lovely as our children's/ smiles white n glistenin' clear of fear or shame/ young girls in braids as precious as gold/ find out that sex is not just bein' touched/ but in the swing of their hips the light fallin cross/ a softbrown cheek or the movement of a mere finger/ to a lip many lips inviting kisses southern/ and hip as any one lanky brother in the heat/ of a laid back sunday rich as a big mama still/ in love with the idea of love how we play at lovin'/ even riskin' all common sense cause we are as fantastical/ as any chimera or magical flowers where breasts entice/ and disguise the racing pounding of our hearts/ as the music that we are/ hard core blues low bass voices crooning/ straight outta Compton melodies so pretty they nasty cruising the Harbor Freeway/ blowin' kisses to strangers who won't be for long/ singing ourselves to ourselves Mamie Khalid Sharita/ Bessie Jock Tookie MaiMai Cosmic Man Mr. Man/ Keemah and all the rest seriously courtin'/ rappin' a English we make up as we along/ turnin' nouns into verbs braids into crowns/ and always fetchin' dreams from a horizon/ strewn with bones and flesh of those of us/ who didn't make it whose smiles and deep/ dark eyes help us to continue to see/ there's so much life here.
Literary Devices: People of Watts • Diction:the choice of wording that the author uses in a work of literature. EX: ...find out that sex is not just bein' touched/... ...smiles white nglistenin' clear of fear or shame/... • Personification: the animation of inanimate objects to portray a greater meaning in a poem. EX: ...dreams and memories rest by fences/... • Allusion: a reference to things outside the work. EX: ...as any chimera or magical flowers where breasts entice/...
Poem Analysis#2: Sonia Sanchez • Born Wilsonia Benita Driver in Birmingham, Alabama on September 9, 1934 • Graduated from Hunter College with a B.A in Political Science • Former member of the Nation of Islam organization but left after her views on women’s rights conflicted with the their views • Advocate of the people and part of CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) • Writings and works focused on the struggles and lives of Black America • Informal diction used in work to get her point across Most Notable works: Ballad, A Blues Book for a Blue Black Magic Woman, Broadside Press, 1974, Wounded in the House of a Friend, Beacon Press, 1995, Plays: The Bronx is Next (1970), Black Cats and Uneasy Landings
Ballad by Sonia Sanchez forgive me if i laugh you are so sure of love you are so young and i too old to learn of love. the rain exploding in the air is love the grass excreting her green wax is love and stones remembering past steps is love, but you. you are too young for love and i too old. once. what does it matter when or who, i knew of love. i fixed my body under his and went to sleep in love all trace of me was wiped away forgive me if i smile young heiress of a naked dream you are so young and i too old to learn of love.
Literary Devices: Ballad • Imagery: the creation of a picture in the mind of the reader through the use of words. EX: the rain exploding/ in the air is love/ the grass excreting her/ green wax is love • Personification: the animation of an inanimate object to convey a message. EX: and stones remembering/ past steps is love • Conceit: an interesting depiction of an event. EX: the rain exploding/ in the air is love • Free Verse: no rhyming scheme yet still traditional to its time.
Poem Analysis#3:Amiri Baraka • Amiri Baraka – Born on October 7, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey. Formerly known as “Leroi Jones” • Served in the Air force from 1954-1957, where he moved to the lower East Side of Manhattan and joined a circle of Greenwich Village artists, writers, and musicians. • In 1958, Baraka founded the Totem Press, publishing beat movement icons such as John Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg. • Married Hettie Cohen (1958-1965) and became joint editor of the Yugen Literary Magazine. Separated after Malcolm X’s assassination. • He helped found and direct the influential Black Arts movement which sought to move black writers away from western sensibilities and toward a more complete embrace of the black world. • Most Notable Works: Preface to a Twenty – Volume Suicide Note; Ka-Ba, An Agony. As Now., In memory of a Radio, and Wise I • Other Works (Plays) Include: The Slave, The Toilet and Dutchman
Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note: By Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones) Lately, I've become accustomed to the way The ground opens up and envelopes me Each time I go out to walk the dog. Or the broad edged silly music the wind Makes when I run for a bus... Things have come to that. And now, each night I count the stars. And each night I get the same number. And when they will not come to be counted, I count the holes they leave. Nobody sings anymore. And then last night I tiptoed up To my daughter's room and heard her Talking to someone, and when I opened The door, there was no one there... Only she on her knees, peeking into Her own clasped hands
Literary Devices: Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note • Tone – Depressed, Hopeless, and engulfed with Despair. “Lately, I’ve become accustomed to the way The ground opens up and envelopes me Each time I go out to walk the dog.” • Repetition: ”And now, each night I count the stars. And each night I get the same number. And when they will not come to be counted,” – Repeating of the word “and” • Personification - “The ground envelopes me” – Identifies ground enclosing him “ Broad edged silly music the wind makes…” – Wind creating nonsensical music • Imagery - “ Broad edged silly music” “ Tip-toed” “ Clasped hands” • Theme: African Americans are oppressed due to the harsh judgment given by the Whites.
Poem Analysis#4: Nikki Giovanni • She was born Yolande Cornelia Giovanni on June 7, 1943 in Knoxville, Tennessee • She grew up in Lincoln Heights, an all-black suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio • She attended Fisk University in Tennessee and recieved a Bachelors in History • She then attended the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University • She is a University Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech (where she currently teaches poetry) • She has recieved 19 honorary doctorates and has been named Woman of the Year in several different magazines • The civil rights and black power movements has inspired her early work • Her writing has been inspired by African American artists and activists Most Notable Works: Woman, Black Judgment (1968), The Women and The Men (1975), Black Feeling, Black Talk (1967)
Woman by Nikki Giovanni she wanted to be a blade of grass amid the fields but he wouldn't agree to be the dandelion she wanted to be a robin singing through the leaves but he refused to be her tree she spun herself into a web and looking for a place to rest turned to him but he stood straight declining to be her corner she tried to be a book but he wouldn't read she turned herself into a bulb but he wouldn't let her grow she decided to become a woman and though he still refused to be a man she decided it was all right
Literary Devices: Woman • Assonance:the repetition of a vowel sound. EX: ...but he refused to be/ her tree... • Imagery:the use of words and phrases to create a picture in the mind. EX: she wanted to be a blade/ of grass amid the fields • Symbolism:the use of an item to portray the theme and message of the work. EX: she turned herself into a bulb/ but he wouldn't let her grow
AP style writing prompt • In the poem Woman by Nikki Giovanni, figurative language is used to illustrate the one-sided relationship between a young man and woman, with the latter not being satisfied enough. Carefully read the poem. Then write a well-developed essay analyzing the theme and compare or contrast the theme to another work of literature. • The poem Ballad by Sonia Sanchez implements figurative language and literary devices to develop a point about love. What do you suppose love is referred to? Annotate the poem and analyze the figurative language and literary devices then write a well-developed essay on what love is referred to. • Poetry can express an intense variety of emotion from different time periods. In the poem, “Ballad” by Sonia Sanchez, the piece revolves around a woman and her interpretation of wisdom and love. Carefully read this poem. Then construct an essay that would analyze the “bigger picture” of wisdom and love through the poems use of literary devices
Interactive Poetry Lesson senses of heritage my grandpa was a doughboy from carolina the other a garveyite from lakewood I got talked to abt the race & achievement bout color & propriety/ nobody spoke to me about the moon daddy talked abt music & mama bout christians my sisters/ we always talked & talked there was never quiet trees were status symbols I've taken to fog/ the moon still surprisin me
Resources • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonia_Sanchez • ww.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/147 • www.afropoets.net/ntozakeshange3.html • www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/poetry/shange_ntozake.html • www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/445 • www.nathanielturner.com/amiribaraka.htm • http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikki_Giovanni • www.nikki-giovanni.com/bio.shtml
100 Who currently teaches poetry at Virginia Tech University? Answer
200 This poet wrote I live in music and is renowned for earning a Master’s degree at UCLA Answer
300 This poet founded the Totem press and helped publish certain Beat movement icons. Answer
400 This poet broke away from the Nation of Islam due to conflicting views of women’s rights. Answer
100 When was the Black Arts movement? Answer
200 What were poems and works focusing on during the movement? Answer
300 What organization in the civil rights movement was Sonia Sanchez formerly apart of? Answer
400 Name 3 famous civil rights leaders Answer
100 The term used to describe an ingenious and fanciful notion or conception and points to a striking parallel between two dissimilar things. Answer
200 Nikki Giovanni states in her Woman: “She turned herself into a bulb/ but he wouldn't let her grow” is an example of….? Answer
300 Rain exploding…/ grass excreting her green wax…/stone remembering… are examples of…? Answer
400 The focus of opposition of racial inequality in a work is an example of…? Answer
100 “you are so young and i too old to learn of love.” Answer
200 she decided to become a woman Answer
300 Nobody sings anymore. Answer
400 And then last night I tiptoed up To my daughter's room and heard her Talking to someone, and when I openedThe door, there was no one there... Only she on her knees, peeking into Answer
Poets-100 Nikki Giovanni back
Poets-200 NtozakeShange back
Poets-300 Amiri Baraka back
Poets-400 Sonia Sanchez back
Movement- 100 Civil Rights Movement from1950’s to 1960’s back
Movement-200 Opposition towards racial inequality Opposition towards establishment of White society Politically charged aggression towards change in society back
Movement-300 Nation of Islam back
Movement-400 Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X W.E.B Du Bois Rosa Parks Maya Angelou Jesse Jackson back
Literary devices-100 Conceit back
Literary devices-200 Symbolism back
Literary devices- 300 Personification back
Literary devices- 400 Theme back
Poems- 100 Ballad by Sonia Sanchez back
Poems- 200 Woman by Nikki Giovanni back