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  1. IndIGO Consortium (Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations) LIGO-India Tarun Souradeep IUCAA (Spokesperson, IndIGO) An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal mega@home Governing Board meeting IUCAA Jan 20, 2012

  2. A Century long Wait • Einstein’s Gravitation (1916-2011): • Beauty : symmetry in fundamental physics –mother of gauge theories • & precision : matches all experimental tests till date to high precision GW prediction to direct detection (a la Hertz for Maxwell EM theory) • Two Fundamental Difference between GR and EM - Weakness of Gravitation relative to EM (10-39) -Spin 2 nature of GW vs Spin 1 of EM that forbids dipole radiation in GR • Feeble effect of GW on a Detector  strong sources • GW Hertz experiment ruled out. Only astrophysical systems involving huge masses and accelerating very strongly are potential detectable sources of GW signals. • GW  Astronomy link • Astrophysical systems are sources of copious GW emission: • GW emission efficiency (10% of mass for BH mergers) >> • EM radiation via Nuclear fusion (0.05% of mass) • Energy/mass emitted in GW from binary >> EM radiation in the lifetime • Universe is buzzing with GW signals from cores of astrophysical events • Bursts (SN, GRB), mergers, accretion, stellar cannibalism ,… • Extremely Weak interaction, hence, has been difficult to detect directly • But also implies GW carry unscreened & uncontaminated signals 96%universe does not emit Electromagnetic signal!

  3. Indirect evidence for Gravity waves Binary pulsar systems emit gravitational waves Nobel prize in 1993 !!! Hulse and Taylor 14yr slowdown of PSR1913+16 Pulsar companion

  4. Principle behind direct Detection of GW

  5. Era of Advanced GW detectors: 2015 • 10x sensitivity • 10x dist reach • 1000 volume • >> 1000X event rate • (reach beyond • nearest super-clusters) • A Day of Advanced LIGO Observation >> • A year of Initial LIGO • observation

  6. GEO: 0.6km VIRGO: 3km LIGO-LHO: 2km+ 4km future: LCGT 3 km TAMA/CLIO LIGO-LLO: 4km Global Network of GW Observatories improves… 1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3. Source direction 4. Polarization info. Time delays in milliseconds India provides almost largest possible baselines. (Antipodal baseline 42ms) LIGO-India ?

  7. LIGO-India: … the opportunity Science Gain from Strategic Geographical Relocation Source localization error Courtesy: S. Fairhurst • Detection confidence • Duty cycle • Source localization (4th detector breaks degeneracy) • Polarization info.

  8. Gravitational wave Astronomy : vit GWIC Roadmap Document

  9. Highly Multi-disciplinary Astro++ Schematic of Advanced LIGOdetectors “Every single technology they’re touching they’re pushing, and there’s a lot of different technologies they’re touching.” (Beverly Berger, National Science Foundation Program director for gravitational physics. ) Large scale Ultra high Vacuum to be fabricated in India 10 mega -litres at nano-torr!!!

  10. LIGO-India:Salient points of the megaproject • On Indian Soil with International Cooperation (no competition) • Partner in major science discovery!!! (IndIGO already part of LSC) • AdvLIGO would be first setup at US site. • AdvLIGO-USA precedes LIGO-India by ~3 years. Staggered time-line  dual advantage. • Indian experimenters would participate in Adv-LIGO-USA • Significant US expertise will pave way for faster execution of LIGO-India (Already Stan Whitcomb Chief Sc. LIGO; RanaAdhikari- Caltech-LIGO (+ GEO,EGO,….) have committed to spend a 2+ months/year in India • US hardware contribution ready : no uncertainty in timeline • Adv.LIGO is theLargestNSF funded project in USA • aLIGO-India exploration by LIGOlab approved by NSF blue ribbon committee on Oct 7, 2011 • Expenditure entirely in Indian labs & Industry. • Very significant Industrial capability upgrade. Indian DAE labs & Industry assessed to be in position to carry out phase-I of LIGO-India. (Senior LIGO team visited Indian labs & facilities in Aug &Oct 2011] • Well defined training plan  Generate large number (~100)of highly trained HRD in areas of wide application in S &T. • Major data analysis centre for the entire LIGO network. Huge opportunity for Indian University participation. ' The panel believes that the science case for LIGO-India is compelling, and reason enough to move forward in the near term … We note that LIGO-India is the only option actively under consideration by the LIGO Laboratory.' -- NSF

  11. LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Expected Indian Contribution

  12. Phase 1 (2012-16) • Site (L-config: 100 m x 8km), survey, acquisition, site preparation • Ultra-high Vacuum enclosure : design adaptation  industry • Transfer of Interferometer components from USA • Training through participation of core team at advanced LIGO-USA • HPC-Data centre + Expansion of current science user community by 2015 • Phase 2 (2017-19) • Interferometer installation & commissioning • Engineering run • Phase 3 (2020-2030) • Science runs and sustained operations • Research labs to participate in upgrade lines & 3rd gen. • Physics & Astronomy research Budget: 2011-13 : Rs. 10 Crores (Seed Funding) 2012-17: Rs. 650 Crores 2017-22: Rs. 380 Crores 2022-27: Rs. 230 Crores Time frame: Site and Detector Construction: 2012-2019 Commissioning and Science Runs: 2019 Network Operation: 2020

  13. LIGO-India: meeting the challenges • Indian contribution in human resources: • UHV construction supervision [team, expertise, experience & resource identified from RRCAT & IPR+ IISERs within IndIGO (+ BARC+…?)] • Site survey working group [with geophysicists and civil engineering groups in place + GSI … ?] • Scientific & Engineering manpower for detector • assembly, installation and commissioning (2012-2014). • To participate in installation and comm. of Adv. LIGO USA • 2 PDFs in LIGO already; 2 under consideration ,….. • Researchers (mostly NRI) from intl.GW labs interested in LIGO-India positions in India • (eg., U Wash, UWAus, Glasgow, B’hamUK, ESA, …),…. • Trained S&E manpower for LIGO-India sustained operations for around 2018 (7 years from now) • Parallel developments in technology R&D in national labs

  14. LIGO-India:a good idea for Intl. community ! HRD@home • Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy • Potentially larger GW expt & science community in the future • Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges • Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home. • Present experimental expertise within IndIGO Laser ITF: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR, IITM, IIT K, IISER Pune, IISER, Kol, IISER TVM + …? UH Vacuum: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR +….? In project mode, each group can scale to 10 Post-doc & PhD students in 2-3 years. • Major enhancement of Science & Data Analysis team. Consolidated IndIGO participation in LIGO Science Collab. (Sept 2011) • Sukanta Bose, senior LSC member, USA applied to IUCAA • SanjitMitra: Caltech IUCAA, Sengupta  DU • Expand theory and create numerical relativity simulation. Expect hiring in premier institutions Ajith P. , TAPIR, Caltech ?

  15. Indian GW research Legacy • 20+ years of work in source modelling, gravitational wave data analysis algorithms and related areas (Dhurandhar@IUCAA, Iyer@RRI, Sathyaprakash@IUCAA…). • A number of highly productive collaborations have been established with GW groups in Australia, France, Germany, Japan, UK and USA, mainly through bilateral programmes. • Students and postdocs from the programme are in top GW groups internationally – younger section  faculty positions in India • IUCAA (Dhurandhar) has been a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for a decade (2000-10). • Templates in LDAS based on Source models (Iyer) from India • IndIGO membership (multi-institutional team of 15 DA, theory & expt) of LIGO Science Collab. (Sept 2011)

  16. IndIGO Consortium – a brief history • Dec. 2007 : ICGC2007 @IUCAA: RanaAdhikari’s visit & discussions • 2009: • Australia-India S&T collaboration (Iyer & Blair) Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy • IndIGO Consortium: IUCAA Reunion meeting (Aug 9, 2009) • GW Astronomy Roadmap for India; • 2009-2011: • Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi to Define, Reorient and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies for setting up the International GW Network. • Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise; Individuals & Institutions • March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia • May 2011+: LIGO-India.. Note: • IndIGO was admitted to GWIC in July 2011 : Intl. recognition of the growing community in India. • IndIGO has been accepted into the LIGO Science Collab. (LSC) : pan-Indian 7 institutes: 15 members: Theory, DA + EXPERIMENTERS ): Sept. 2011

  17. IndIGO Consortium Data Analysis & Theory T R Seshadri Delhi University Patrick DasguptaDelhi University Sanjay JhinganJamilaMilia L. Sriramkumar, IIT M Bhim P. SarmaTezpurUniv . Sanjay SahayBITS, Goa P AjithCaltech Sukanta Bose, Wash. U. B. S. SathyaprakashCardiff University SoumyaMohantyUTB, Brownsville Badri Krishnan Max Planck AEI SatyanarayanMohapatraUM, Amherst SanjeevDhurandharIUCAA BalaIyerRRI Tarun Souradeep IUCAA AnandSenguptaDelhi Univ. ArchanaPaiIISER,-TVM SanjitMitraJPL ,IUCAA K G ArunCMI Rajesh NayakIISER-K GopakumarTIFR

  18. Instrumentation & Experiment C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR G RajalakshmiTIFR P.K. Gupta RRCAT Sendhil Raja RRCAT S.K. Shukla RRCAT Raja Rao RRCAT exx Anil Prabhakar, IIT M Shanti Bhattacharya IIT M Pradeep Kumar, IIT K Ajai Kumar IPR S.K. Bhatt IPR VasantNatarajanIISc. UmakantRapolIISER Pune Shiva PatilIISER Pune Joy MitraIISER Tvm S. GhoshIISER Kol SupriyoMitraIISER Kol RanjanGupta IUCAA Bhal Chandra Joshi NCRA RijuparnaChakrabortyCote d’Azur RanaAdhikari Caltech Suresh Doravari Caltech S. Sunil U. W. Aus. Rahul Kumar U. of Glasgow BiplabBhawalLIGO ex K. VenkatU. Washington B. BhadurU. of Illinois

  19. LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Vacuum structure & engineering

  20. Phase 1. Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure S.K. Shukla (RRCAT), A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT), S. Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR) • To be fabricated by Industry with designs from LIGO. A pumped volume of 10000m3(10Mega-litres), evacuated to an ultra high vacuum of nano-torr (10-9 torr ). Spiral weld UHV beam tubes 1.2 m dia: 20 m sections. Sections butt welded to 200m Expansion Bellows btw 200m beam sections, 1 m gate valves UHV Optical tanks to house mirrors : end, beam splitter,…

  21. Plan : Large scale ultra-high Vacuum • Fabricated and installed by Indian Industry under close monitoring by science & technology team • Oversee the procurement & fabrication of the vacuum system components and its installation by a national multi-institutional team. • DAE commitment to LIGO-India  Intense participation of RRCAT & IPR possible. • All vacuum components such as flanges, gate-valves, pumps, residual gas analyzers and leak detectors will be bought. • Companies L&T, Fullinger, HindHiVac, Godrej, … with close support from RRCAT, IPR and LIGO Lab. • 1st round of discussions with Industry in Feb 2011 :Companies like HHV, Fullinger, Godrej in consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO), D. Blair (ACIGA) since this was a major IndIGO deliverable to LIGO-Australia. Followed by visit by LIGO expt to industry in Aug 2011.

  22. LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Detector Assembly & commisionning

  23. Phase 2. Detector Assembly & Commissioning For installation and commissioning phase: • Identify 10-15 core experienced Engineers & scientists who spend a year, or more, at Advanced LIGO-USA during its install. & comm. • 2 post-docs at LIGO Caltech (2010, 2011), 2 more other under consideration in LIGO and EGO • Present experimental expertise within IndIGO Laser ITF: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR,NPL, IITM, IIT K, IISER Pune, IISER, Kol, IISER TVM UH Vacuum: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR, BARC In project mode, each group can scale to 10 Post-doc & PhD students in 2-3 years. • Researchers (mostly NRI) from intl .GW labs interested in LIGO-India positions in India (eg., U Wash, UWAu, Glasgow, B’ham UK, ESA, …),…. • Young IISER faculty -- long visit LIGO facilities under IUSSTF (applied) • 6-10 full time engineers and scientists in India.

  24. LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Trained Manpower generation and sustenance

  25. LIGO-India: … the challenges Manpower generation for sustenance of LIGO-India : Plans & exploration • Advanced LIGO USA will have a lead time over LIGO-India • Indian personnel trained in USA bring expertise to LIGO-India and build groups using associated training program. (DST /Academy/ IUSSTF/SAVI/… programs, e.g, BOYSCAST, Ramanujan may be helpful, perhaps not sufficient.) • IndIGO Summer internships in International labs underway (2nd year). • High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT, IISER, NISERS,.. • 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at LIGO-MIT • Plans to extend to participating National labs to generate more experimenters • IndIGO schools to expose students to emerging opportunity in GW science • 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ. (thru IUCAA) • Funded ICTS Cosmology & GW school in IUCAA, Dec 2011 • Ongoing IUCAA GW school in Tezpur Univ. (Jan 2012) • Tech.Training school (initially period offered by IPR, RRCAT) & also Post graduate school specialization course at IUCAA  major UG to PhD program (involve Intl community).

  26. Indo-US centre for Gravitational Physics and Astronomy @ IUCAA APPROVED (Dec 2010). Funds received Jul 6, 2011 • Centre of Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) • Exchange program to fund mutual visits and facilitate • interactions leading to collaborations • Nodal centres: IUCAA , Pune, India & Caltech, Pasadena, USA. • Institutions: • Indian: IUCAA, TIFR, IISER, DU, CMI - PI: Tarun Souradeep • USA: Caltech, WSU - PI: Rana Adhikari

  27. IndIGO Data Centre@IUCAA • Primary Science: Online Coherent search for GW signal from binary mergers using data from global detector network Coherent  4 x event rate (40  160 /yr for NS-NS) • Role of IndIGO data centre • Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of GW data and analysis • Bring together data-analysts within the Indian science community. • Puts IndIGO on the global map for international collaboration with LIGO Science Collab. wide facility. Part of the LSC participation by IndIGO • Large University sector participation via IUCAA • > ~100 Tflops peak capability (by 2014) • Storage: 4x100TB per year per interferometer. • Network: gigabit+ backbone, National Knowledge Network • Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech • 30 Tf ,200 Tb funded IUCAA : ready fall 2012

  28. LIGO-India: … current snapshot? • National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship Mega-project (?) • IUCAA is prepared to be the lead institute as the key-science stake holder • It would have support from National DAE labs such as IPR & RRCAT (Possibly BARC, …?) Explicit statements from Director, RRCAT & Director, IPR • Project leader : Search Committee of NSC chair +lead institutes (Prof. Kaw IPR, Prof. Gupta RRCAT), IndIGO chair – chaired by AKK, IUCAA. • Training programs & HRD initiated – short term, & long term. IUCAA playing key role in this. Can be scaled up once LIGO-India is approved • Construction: Substantial Engg project building. Indian capability in large vacuum system engg, welding techniques and technology Exists (IPR, RRCAT: LIGO team assessment) • Site

  29. LIGO-India: … the challenges Indian Site • Requirements: • Low seismicity • Low human generated noise • Air connectivity • Proximity to Academic institutions, labs, industry preferred, … • Identify potential sites not too far from existing facilities • Need to carry out seismic survey to get ground noise spectral density at 0.1-10 Hz range • Few interesting possibilities are under investigation

  30. Extensive Site Survey Seismic background at Site X

  31. Site characterization: Archived Weather Data at Site X

  32. Concluding remarks on LIGO-India • Home ground advantage. Unique & unprecedented opportunity. • Threshold of discovery and launch of a new observational window in human history!! Century after Einstein GR, 40 yrs of Herculean global efforts • Unlike other projects the key crucial components and subsystems have already been developed and individually tested & validated and are ready to be taken up for installation. So there are no uncertainties regarding the technological feasibility. • No requirement of a incubation period for technology demonstration, pathfinder mission etc. as the current design and technology for the detector is based on R&D and development done by the LSC over the past to decades • India pays true tribute to fulfilling Chandrasekhar’s legacy: ”Astronomy is the natural home of general relativity” IUCAA should be a key stake holder • Attain high technology gains for partnering Indian labs & industries Thank you !!!

  33. LIGO labs LIGO-India ? LIGO-India: unique once-in-a-generation opportunity • 180 W pre-stabilized Nd:YAG laser • 10 interferometer core optics (test masses, folding mirrors, beam splitter, recycling mirrors) • Input condition optics, including electro-optic modulators, Faraday isolators, a suspended mode-cleaner (12-m long mode-defining cavity), and suspended mode-matching telescope optics. • 5 "BSC chamber" seismic isolation systems (two stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation stages capable of ~200 kg payloads) • 6"HAM Chamber" seismic isolation systems (one stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation stages capable of ~200 kg payloads) • 11 Hydraulic External Pre-Isolation systems • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems • Triple stage suspensions for remaining suspended optics • Baffles and beam dumps for controlling scattering and stray radiation • Optical distortion monitors and thermal control/compensation system for large optics • Photo-detectors, conditioning electronics, actuation electronics and conditioning • Data conditioning and acquisition system, software for data acquisition • Supervisory control and monitoring system, software for all control systems • Installation tooling and fixturing

  34. Advanced LIGO Laser • Unique globally. Would require years of focused R &D effort in India • AdvLIGO laser has spurred RRCAT to envisage planning development of similar laser capability in the next 5 year plans. IIT M/K group also interested. • Multiple applications of narrow line width laser : Freq time stand, precision metrology, Quantum key distribution, high sensitivity seismic sensors (geo sc.), coherence LIDAR (atm sc.), …. • Designed and contributed by Albert Einstein Institute, Germany • Much higher power (to beat down photon shot noise) • 10W  180W (narrow sub kHz line width) • Better stability • 10ximprovement in intensity (nano ppm) and frequency stability (mHz)

  35. Advanced LIGO Mirrors • Surface specs (/3000) : 100 x best telescope optics • Surface specs currently available in India for much smaller sizes /20 • Indian industry may now be challenged to achieve on small scale, eg., for TIFR 3m prototype • Technology for such mirror useful for high optical metrology and other specialized applications • Larger size • 11 kg  40 kg, 2534 cm • Smaller figure error • 0.7 nm  0.35 nm • Lower absorption • 2 ppm 0.5 ppm • Lower coating thermal noise

  36. LIGO-India: unique once-in-a-generation opportunity • “Quantum measurements” • further improvement via squeezed light: • Potential technology spin-offs will impact quantum computing and quantum key distribution (QKD) for secure communications. • (IITM approached by ITI for QKD development.) • New ground for optics and communication technology in India • + Cold atom labs (IISc., IISERP,….), Precision force measurements,…. • High Potential to draw the best Indian UG students, typically interested in theoretical physics, into experimental science !!!

  37. Optics Installation Under Cleanroom Conditions • High precision skills • Low contamination labs & trained manpower for related Indian labs & industry • Application in other sciences, eg. Material sciences, Space , biotech ,… Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb

  38. Concluding remarks on LIGO-India • Home ground advantage. Unique & unprecedented opportunity. • Threshold of discovery and launch of a new observational window in human history!! Century after Einstein GR, 40 yrs of Herculean global efforts • Unlike other projects the key crucial components and subsystems have already been developed and individually tested & validated and are ready to be taken up for installation. So there are no uncertainties regarding the technological feasibility. • No requirement of a incubation period for technology demonstration, pathfinder mission etc. as the current design and technology for the detector is based on R&D and development done by the LSC over the past to decades • Attain high technology gains for Indian labs & industries • India pays true tribute to fulfilling Chandrasekhar’s legacy: ”Astronomy is the natural home of general relativity” Thank you !!!

  39. Option No 5 • Acquire modest extra adjoining land

  40. Option No 7 • Skirt DRDO • Swap with Sheep farm • minor land acquisition

  41. Director RRCAT’s statement The LIGO-India being a project of National interest and entailing high end technologies such as lasers, optics and vacuum is of great interest to RRCAT. RRCAT would provide all the required support for key technological expertise for lasers, optics and vacuum by way of design, expert advice, consultancy and training of manpower in vacuum technology and optics/laser technology etc, required for the project. Manpower recruited for the vacuum and laser/optics activities of IndIGO project will be trained at RRCAT by way of participation in the various ongoing developmental projects in the respective fields. These trained manpower can then contribute to the IndIGO project as the facility gets built. This mode of participation in IndIGO would lead to valuable contributions to the project without affecting the ongoing projects at RRCAT and also ensure that sufficient trained manpower is available during installation and commissioning phase to run the project in a sustainable manner.

  42. Statement : P.K. Kaw, Director, IPR The case for LIGO-India is very compelling. Gravitational astronomy is at the threshold of its birth and is likely to emerge, in the coming few decades , as a totally new window for the exploration of our Universe. Discoveries in this new field are likely to revolutionize our understanding of the Universe and will lead to many Nobel Prizes. We are getting an opportunity to leapfrog and participate as equal partners in this exciting enterprise , by working closely with one of the world’s most advanced groups viz. scientists and engineers of LIGO project from institutions like Caltech, MIT, Berkeley and Stanford. We already have a community of distinguished gravitational physicists/ astronomers in India and in the Indian community abroad, who can provide leadership in the utilization of data from LIGO detectors for the purposes of modeling and interpretations. We are also lucky in having developed in several of our scientific institutes, the essential technical expertise required for setting up the basic infrastructure such as the selection of an appropriate site, the detailed design and fabrication of large volume ultra high vacuum systems, the basic vibration isolation and dynamic real time control experience and experience in working with simple laser based interferometer/Febry-Perot etalon systems. We can look forward to the import of new ideas and transfer of highly sophisticated new technologies, which will inevitably arise if we take up the task of implementing the LIGO India project in close collaboration with LIGO team. We are therefore confident that it can be taken up as a challenge by our young scientists and engineers who can deliver the goods by working closely with industries in India . We strongly believe that the quality of scientific output from the LIGO project, if successful, is going to be so high that it is a risk worth taking and too good an opportunity to be allowed to be lost . Statement : Prof. P.K. Kaw, Director IPR The case for LIGO-India is very compelling. Gravitational astronomy … threshold of its birth and …. as a totally new window for the exploration of our Universe. Discoveries in this new field…. and will lead to many Nobel Prizes. We are getting an opportunity to leapfrog … and participate as equal partners …. institutions like Caltech, MIT, Berkeley and Stanford. We already have a community of distinguished gravitational physicists/ astronomers in India ….. We are also lucky in having developed in several of our scientific institutes, the essential technical expertise required … We are therefore confident that it can be taken up as a challenge by our young scientists and engineers who can deliver the goods by working closely with industries in India . We strongly believe that the quality of scientific output from the LIGO project, if successful, is going to be so high that it is a risk worth taking and too good an opportunity to be allowed to be lost .

  43. LIGO-India vs. Indian-IGO ? Primary advantage: LIGO-India Provides cutting edge instrumentation & technology to jump start GW detection and astronomy. Would require at least a decade of focused & sustained technology developments in Indian laboratories and industry • 180 W Nd:YAG: 5 years; • Operation and maintenance should benefit further development in narrow line width lasers. • Applications in high resolution spectroscopy, • precision interferometry and metrology. • Input conditioning optics..Expensive..No Indian manufacturer with such specs • Seismic isolation (BCE,HAM) .. Minimum 2 of years of expt and R&D. • Experience in setting up and maintaining these systems  know how forisolation in critical experiments such as in optical metrology,AFM/Microscopy, gravity experiments etc. • 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing optics of this quality and develop required metrology facility : At least 5 to 7 years ofdedicated R&D work in optical polishing, figuring and metrology. • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems.. 3-4 years of development.. Not trivial to implement. • Benefit other physics experiments working at the quantum limit of noise.

  44. LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India: Project team requirements • LIGO-India Director • Project manager • Project engineering staff: • Civil engineer(s) • Vacuum engineer(s) • Systems engineer(s), • Mechanical engineers • Electronics engineers • Software engineers • Detector leader • Project system engineer • Detector subsystem leaders • 10-15 talented scientists or research engineers • with interest and knowledge collectively spanning: • Lasers and optical devices, Optical metrology, handling and cleaning, Precision mechanical structures, Low noise electronics, Digital control systems and electro-mechanical servo design, Vacuum cleaning and handling)

  45. Indian Gravitational wave strengths • Very good students and post-docs produced in Indian GW groups over 20yrs . * Leaders in GW research abroad [Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty] (3) * Recently returned to faculty positions at premier Indian institutions (6) • Gopakumar (Jena TIFR) and Arun (VirgoCMI) : PN modeling, dynamics of CB, Ap and cosmological implications of parameter estimation • Rajesh Nayak (UTB  IISER K) , ArchanaPai (AEI  IISER T), AnandSengupta (LIGO, Caltech Delhi), SanjitMitra (JPL  IUCAA ): Extensive experience on single and multi-detector detection, hierarchical techniques, noise characterisation schemes, veto techniques for GW transients, bursts, continuous and stochastic sources, radiometric methods, … • P. Ajith (Caltech, LIGO/TAPIR  ? ) …… • Sukanta Bose (Faculty UW, USA  ?) Strong Indian presence in GW Astronomy with Global detector network  broad international collaboration is the norm  relatively easy to get people back. • Close interactions with RanaAdhikari (Caltech), B.S. Sathyaprakash (Cardiff), Sukanta Bose ( WU, Pullman)  India ?, SoumyaMohanty (UTB), Badri Krishnan ( AEI) …

  46. Multi-Institutional, Multi-disciplinary Consortium Nodal Institutions • CMI, Chennai • Delhi University • IISER, Kolkata • IISER, TVM • IISER, Pune • IIT Madras (EE) • IIT Kanpur (EE) • IUCAA, Pune • RRCAT, Indore • TIFR, Mumbai • IPR, Ahmedabad Ind. Members from • TIFR Mumbai • IISc, Bangalore • RRI, Bangalore

  47. IndIGO: Goals • Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand GW related Experimental activity and train new technically skilled manpower • July 2011 IndIGO Consortium Application for Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC) Accepted. • Pan-Indian consolidated IndIGOmembership in LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for participation in Advanced LIGO. Sept 2011 • Create a Tier-2 data centre in IUCAA for LIGO Scientific Collaboration Deliverables and as a LSC Resource

  48. IndIGO: current activities • Starting collaborative work under the IUSSTF Indo-US IUCAA-Caltech joint Centre at IUCAA • Indo-Jap project “Coherent multi-detector gravitational wave search using LCGT and advanced interferometers” • Explore the Roadmap for EGO-IndIGO collaboration on GW and a possible MOU (Meeting on Nov 1-2 ,2011 at IUCAA) • Explore Indian participation in LISA and space based GW detectors in the future ( ASTROD 5 meeting on July 14 – 16, 2012 at RRI) • Propose LIGO-India !!!

  49. IndIGO Consortium – a brief history • Dec. 2007 : ICGC2007 @IUCAA: RanaAdhikari’s visit & discussions • 2009: • Australia-India S&T collaboration (Iyer & Blair) Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy • IndIGO Consortium: Reunion meeting IUCAA (Aug 9, 2009) • GW Astronomy Roadmap for India; • 2009-2011: • Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi to Define, Reorient and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies for setting up the International GW Network. • Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise; Individuals & Institutions • March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia • May 2011+: LIGO-India..

  50. LIGO-India Budget Summary: 2012-2027 In Rs. Crores Total Projected cost 2012-27: Rs. 1260 Crores