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Second Great Removal
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  1. Second Great Removal • Move Indians to reservations and de-savage the Indians • Most did resettle peacefully, some by force • Indian-hating leaders like Sheridan and Sherman lead the Army in one-sided clashes “Indian Wars”

  2. Sioux Removal -Treaty of Fort Laramie – Guaranteed Indians control of Black Hills - Custer in 1874 with 200 men • 1876 try to force Indians to sell Black Hills, price too high • Little Big Horn June 25, 1876 wipe out Custer and 200 men (2-9000 Indians mobilized), one horse survived; Indian victory but causes hatred “those savages” • Sitting Bull said “Now they will never let us rest” • U.S. took the Black Hills (gold) by 1877

  3. Apache Removal • Apache – last to hold on, brilliant strategists • Medicine Lodge Treaty – 1867 placing different tribes on reservations • Red River War – 1874 to force remaining tribes of Southern Plains on to reservations • Sept 1886; Geronimo surrenders

  4. Nez Perce • Nez Perce – Idaho, Washington, Oregon • Saved Lewis and Clark • Assisted US against hostile tribes • Converted to Christianity • 1860 gold discovered; 1863 gave up 6 million acres at 10 cents acre • Chief Joseph threw away Bible set out for Canada; 750 set out for 1400 miles journey • Trapped 30 mile from Canada cold and hungry; Joseph died 1904

  5. Plains buffalo killed for (13 million by 1893) destroys ability of Indians to survive: reinforces gov. relocation policy

  6. Dawes Act 1887 • Helen Hunt Jackson wrote a few books exposing the ill-treatment of Native Americans • Ramona (Southern California) and Century of Dishonor, “Look upon your hands: they are stained with the blood of your relations.” • Stopped treating tribes as sovereign nations: replace tribal justice with courts, do not gather for religious ceremonies; shaman, medicine man imprisoned; “Kill the Indian, Save the man” • Property on reservation would be for the individual not tribes…destroys bonds…private property • After distribution, much Indian land remained the gov sold it to White speculators and kept money …lose 60% of reservation land…each family gets 160 acres millions of surplus acres would be sold; profits were held in trust and used to civilize the Indians • Carlisle School – Richard Pratt

  7. Ghost Dance • WAR IS OVER : 1890s wars are over….reservations: poor land, minimal wildlife to hunt, and few of the promises; Congress did not allocate enough money to re-settle Indians • Tribal extremists begin to emerge • Ghost dance: Wovoka, natural disaster would eliminate whites, ancestors and wild game would return to earth….whites would drive away Indians….observe traditional customs… battle of Wounded Knee…Sitting Bull was supposed to be arrested and was killed instead; U.S. killed 200 • Culture disappears, gov underfunds reservations, sources of poverty and neglect; poorest areas in U.S.

  8. Romanticism • Art School – Rocky Mountain • Albert Bierstadt , Frederic Remington • Dime novels • Buffalo Bill and the Wild West • Stetson hat, pockets, checked pants

  9. Leaders of the African American Community • Ida B. Wells – led anti-lynching campaign • Had to carry a gun • T. Thomas Fortune - Afro-American League – pre-NAACP – blacks must join together to fight discrimination • Independent voting • Opposed segregation and lynching • Establishment of black institutions

  10. Leaders of the African American Community • J.C. Price – Citizens Equal rights – petitions and direct-action campaigns to protest segregation • Black towns • Bishop Henry McNeal Turner – International Migration Society to return to Africa – Liberia • W.E.B. Du Bois first black man to graduate from Harvard • Booker T. Washington – self-help, Tuskegee Institute – largest and best known industrial training school – science techniques and vocational skills • It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top. Atlanta Compromise • W.E.B. Du Bois The Souls of Black Folk – equal civil rights, suffrage, and higher education

  11. GRANGE • GRANGE: Plains residents, farmers, and ranchers begin to organize to counter problems • GRANGE forms in 1870s: each local area would have its own Grange; lacked a strong united front • Oliver Kelley – Order of Patrons of Husbandry • 1807s because of panic numbers rose to 800,000 • Focused on eliminating the middleman and RRs • Cooperatives to eliminate the middleman

  12. GRANGE • By becoming active - Granger Laws – maximum rates that RRs and grain elevators could charge • Some states passed RR rates or outlawed pools, rebates, passes • Munn v. Illinois 1877- states could regulate rates of certain businesses like RRs • Wabash v. Illinois 1886 - severely limited the states rate to control rates • Interstate Commerce Act 1887 – Can regulate RR practices between states • little enforcement now, most cases go in favor of RR (15 out of 16 that reached the Supreme Court) • Rates must be reasonable and just (difficult to define) • ICC – investigate and prosecute lawbreakers

  13. Southern Farmers Alliance • Panic of 1890s caused farmers to organize • Specie shortage at harvest time, prices lower • Debt, shipping costs climbed • Lecturers across south and plains “Equal rights to all, special privileges to none”

  14. Southern Farmers Alliance • GOALS: • Cooperatives • Supported legislation to regulate powerful monopolies • Increase the money supply • National banking system that could offer paper money • Better rural schools, state agricultural colleges, improvements in the status of women • Numbers reached millions • Colored Farmers Alliance

  15. Ocala Platform 1890 • Met in Ocala, FL, national alliance • Federal government had failed to help the farmer • GOALS: • Direct election of senators – most state legislatures elected them • Increase in money supply by issuing silver backed paper money; lack of money drove up interest on loans (more money would cause inflation) • Lowering the tariff • Subtreasuries - Federal gov warehouses to buy/store surplus produce until market prices are OK at low interest rates; loan up to 80% of current local price for produce • Graduated income tax • Regulation of transportation and communication networks

  16. Ocala results • Rep and Dem see this as too extreme • FARMERS feel they will need THEIR OWN PARTY!! • Supported candidates in elections of 1890s