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  1. ENV 259 Lecture 3 – Climate, Soils, and Forest Systems June 2, 2012

  2. Summary - Mike Blair • Devonian Period – EuroAmerica • Avg temp was 68 • Centipedes as big as humans • Appalachians were on way to becoming as large as Himalayans • Geology – land moves up and down, seas move in and out • 1986 Glacial Rebound – mile thick ice sitting on Ohio, compressed, sprang back up as an earthquake • Euclid Avenue was one of the old shorelines of Lake Erie

  3. Reminders - Field Journals • One (1) entry every week, on your own • Environmental / Natural History observation • Use your field book for taking notes during field trips • Can use it for the Mid-term • I’ll check them every week during lecture

  4. Chapter 5Climate & Weather

  5. Ohio’s Climate & Weather • Many types and patterns of weather impact Ohio • Climate v. Weather: What’s the difference? • Weather • Temperature • Precipitation • Humidity • Wind • Barometric Pressure • Cloudiness

  6. Ohio Climate • Climate: weather over a long, long period of time • Ohio Climate • Classified as Continental climate • Moderate extremes of wet/dry and hot/cold • Winters cold enough to support fixed period of stable snow • Relatively low summer precipitation • Lake Erie further modifies Continental climate

  7. 3 Major Continental Storm Tracks in U.S. • Canadian and Arctic Cold Fronts • Pacific Cold Fronts • Warm Fronts • Lake Erie is our Major Weather Producer

  8. Average Ohio Temperatures • Jan 25.7 • Feb 28.4 • March 37.5 • April 47.6 • May 58.5 • June 67.5 • July 71.9 • Aug 70.2 • Sept 63.3 • Oct 52.2 • Nov 41.8 • Dec 31.1 Annual Average 52 F

  9. Ohio’s Major “Weather Producer?” • Lake Erie! • Late autumn/early winter causes “lake effect snow” • Lake Effect snow: NW winds blowing across lake pick up lake moisture and deposit as snow inland

  10. Seasonal Ohio Weather: Spring • Tornadoes - 70% during spring, 90% come from southwest, 1st in Geauga County 1804, none in Vinton • Floods – early spring/late winter is common, frozen ground can’t absorb rain (2/28/2011), also led to worst in 1913, led to dams/levees • Cold Lake Erie can drop land temperatures by 20 degrees in spring • Reason for violent spring weather? • Warm Gulf air mixing with cool Pacific air over Ohio

  11. 1913 Flood Delaware & Chillicothe

  12. Average Annual Precipitation

  13. Lake Erie Hydrology • What causes fluctuating lake levels? • Heavy snow falls • Rain • Seiches • Draught

  14. Seasonal Ohio Weather: Summer • Temperature variations • Hail • Fog • Temperature inversions

  15. Temperature Variations • Gallia County 1934 – 113 degrees • Winds across Lake Erie turn on the AC • Extended 90 degree days not uncommon in Southern Ohio • Mean max temp in Cleveland about 84

  16. Formed when water condenses around dust particles Blown high in the air by rising currents Water freezes and drops, circulates, and finally too heavy Size related to number of circulations Hail

  17. Fog • Fog is a cloud at the earth's surface • Colder, heavy air drops into warmer valleys and produces cloud

  18. Temperature Inversions • Hot air rises in late summer/early autumn • Traps layer of cool air beneath • Pollutants are trapped near the ground

  19. Seasonal Ohio Weather: Autumn • Sunny / hazy days – September, warm with light winds • “Cloud season” – Cold air in November from Canada picks up Lake Erie water vapor (Nov / Dec top cloud months) • First frosts – anywhere from September to November but Lake delays in Cleveland • Lake effect snow…

  20. Lake Effect Snow • Orographic Lifting • Winds across unfrozen Lake Erie • Pick up water vapor • Collides with colder air in higher elevations (Chardon)

  21. Seasonal Ohio Weather: Winter • Winter storm tracks • Winter temperatures • Winter snow

  22. Winter Storm Tracks • Alberta Clipper – fast moving, cold/light snow • Panhandle Hook – through handle of Ok, heavy wet snow • Westerly Lows – Great Plains, no moisture, poor snow • Gulf Coast Low – lots of moisture, rain or the wettest snow • East Coast Lows – heavy snows but only impact Cleveland with the “Noreaster”

  23. Winter Temperatures • Perry County February 1899 – 39 below zero • Average annual lowest temperature in Cleveland is 0 to 5 degrees • 1976 to 1978 saw some of the toughest on record • 1976-1977 coldest in weather history

  24. Winter Snowfall • Variation – Chardon average 106 inches to Scioto County at 15 inches • 1901 Blizzard dropped 31 inches of snow, 10 foot drifts • Great Thanksgiving Storm of 1950 lasted 6 days and 40 inches • Blizzard of 1978 – lowest barometer in history, hurricane winds, only 12 inches of new snow but 20 foot drifts

  25. Chapter 6 OHIO SOILS

  26. Geology & Glacial Review • Millions of years where Ohio was under ancient seas and then “dry” out • Plant and animal sediment compressed into sedimentary rock over time • Land masses floating in oceans and running into each other, pushing up mountains • Land masses eroding from wind, water, glaciers • Plant and animal material continues to break down in wet areas (lakes, bogs, wetlands)

  27. SOIL • Can range from several feet thick to shallow • Uppermost layer of earth’s crust • Ohio has 100’s of different soils • Mineral soils • Derived from eroded rock material • Organic soils • Derived from organic accumulations (peat)

  28. How is soil formed?Five Influences • Parent material – different bedrock mater, glacial till, organics • Climate – temperature, moisture • Living organisms – plant and animal influences • Topography – formation at different elevations • Time – more developed soils have usually developed over longer period of time

  29. Soil Horizons • O: organic • A: topsoil • B: subsoil • C: parent material • R: bedrock

  30. Ohio Soils • Lake Plain soils • Till Plain soils • Glaciated Appalachian Plateau soils • Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau soils • Bluegrass Region soils • Flood Plain, Bog, & Lake Sediments

  31. Ohio Soils • All soils are classified into one (1) of the nearly 400 Soils Series – lumps soils with like characteristics

  32. Lake Plain Soils • Derive from ancient lakes material left by Wisconsinan • Fertile but poorly drained soils • Large # of soil series • Parent material: from great black swamp • Flat topography • “Truck” crops

  33. Slightly more rolling than lake plains Better drained Soils influenced primarily by topography Topography - rolling Parent material-glacial high lime till (Limestone Bedrock) Fertile – corn and beans Till Plains Soils

  34. Rolling and hilly Parent material - mostly from Wisconsinan, some from Illinioian along southern border Loam/silt loam till Primarily well-drained Hilly terrain more conducive to wheat and less on row crops Beach/maple forests Glaciated Appalachian Plateau Soils

  35. Very hilly Parent material - local in origin, derived from sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone bedrock Well drained, less fertile, but good forest development Many different types of soil, mostly acid in pH Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau soils

  36. Parent material - non-local limestone and shale Varies in thickness Generally clayey & rocky Many referred to as Prairie Soils Bluegrass Region Soils

  37. Floodplains, Bogs, & Lake Sediments • Flood Plains • Flooding brings alluvial deposits…results in undeveloped soils…always adding new parent material • Influenced by soil/erosion upstream • Deep, loamey, silty, clayey, sandy soils • Very fertile soils • Bogs • Organic soils (Till Plains & Glaciated Plateau) • Consist of black/brown organic material decomposing

  38. Chapter 7 OHIO FORESTS

  39. Ohio Forests • Vast Forest Wilderness • Soil fertility resulted in tree diversity • Oaks, hickories, beeches, maples, tuliptrees, walnuts, elms, gums, chestnuts, ashes (some >150 ft tall) • Beech & Sugar Maple - NE • Nuts, maple syrup/sugar • Oaks - S, SE • Mast, wildlife food source • Conifers – SE • Infertile, dry soils • “Swamp” Species – W • Oaks that like their feet wet

  40. Tree Identification • Branching & shape • Leaves • Bark • Buds • Location • “Seeds”

  41. Tree Identification • BAMEV Cornus • Buckeye • Ash • Maple • Euonymus • Vibernum • Dogwood (Cornus species) • Count “bundles” • Wet feet?

  42. Forest System • Influenced by nature of the soils and soil development • Oaks, hickories on deep well drained soils (have deep root system, drought resistant) • Black walnut, tuliptree on deep, moist, well drained soils • Alkaline = “sweet” • Acidic= “sour” • Topography influences sun/wind effects • Direct relationship between Flora (plants) and Fauna (animals) – both need each other to survive

  43. Predation • Predator-Prey interactions • Adaptations • Predator: sharp teeth, strong claws • Prey: color, senses, speed, tastes/odors • Balanced system for survival – no over prey • Carrying capacity-level of species that various habitat can support • Smaller animals typically reproduce more rapidly than larger

  44. Predation