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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy : Scientific discipline that investigates the body’s structure Physiology : Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things. Beginnings of A&P. Egypt ~3000 yrs ago - 1 st anatomy manual

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overview of anatomy and physiology
Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
  • Anatomy:Scientific discipline that investigates the body’s structure
  • Physiology:Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things
beginnings of a p
Beginnings of A&P
  • Egypt ~3000 yrs ago - 1st anatomy manual
  • Greek physician Hippocrates (460-375 BC) - code of ethics & urged physicians to seek natural causes of disease
  • Galen (129-201 AD) - ___________________
  • Little advancement in Middle Ages
  • Vesalius (1514-1564) - ____________________
  • da Vinci (1452-1519) – human form
  • Harvey - blood flow & recycling of blood (1628)
history of anatomical terminology
History of Anatomical Terminology
  • Most medical terms from Greek and Latin roots
  • Fast-paced anatomic discoveries during the Renaissance resulted in naming confusion
    • Geographic differences & eponyms
  • German Anatomic Society in 1895 began to unify international terminology
  • 1960s eponyms were rejected, but still used
    • Text pg G1-G2
anatomical physiological variation
Anatomical & Physiological Variation
  • No two humans are exactly alike
  • Anatomy
    • Missing organs
    • More or less organs than normal
    • Variation in organ locations
  • Physiology
    • Differs with sex, age, diet, weight, degree of physical activity
homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • Hippocrates noted that body normally returns to a state of equilibrium by itself
    • needs to detect the change & oppose it
  • Walter Cannon (1871-1945) coined the term homeostasis indicating stable internal environment
  • Internal environment at a dynamic equilibrium
    • fluctuates within a range around a certain set point
  • Loss of homeostatic control causes illness or death
negative feedback set point
Negative Feedback, Set Point
  • Average room temperature would be ______
structures needed for a negative feedback loop
Structures Needed for a Negative Feedback Loop
  • Receptor = structure that __________________
    • stretch receptors in heart & large blood vessels send information of an elevated BP to integrator
  • Integrator = control center
    • cardiac center in brainstem signals heart to slow
  • Effector = structures (e.g., nerves & hormones) that carry out commands of the control center
    • heart slows and BP decreases
positive feedback loops
Positive Feedback Loops
  • Physiological change that leads to an even greater change in the same direction (self-amplifying)
  • Normal way of producing rapid changes
life threatening fever
Life-Threatening Fever
  • If temperature rises above 108°F
    • metabolic rate increases causing body to produce heat faster still
  • Temperature increases & cycle repeats
  • Fatal at 113°F