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Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching. Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012. Cognitive views of learning What is learning? Cognitivist vs. b ehaviourist view Three models Information processing model Constructivism

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Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

  • Cognitive views of learning teaching

  • What is learning?

  • Cognitivist vs. behaviourist view

  • Three models

  • Information processing model

  • Constructivism

  • Individual / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism


What is learning
What is learning? teaching

  • Learning involves “the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information” (Good and Brophy, 1990, p. 187).

  • Memory, conceptual learning, thinking, and problem solving

  • History and context


Cognitivist vs behaviourist view of learning
Cognitivist teaching vs. Behaviourist view of learning



Three models
THREE models teaching

  • From acquisition of knowledge to construction of knowledge

  • Information processing model

  • Personal / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism


Information processing model memory
Information-processing model: memory teaching

  • Listen to the reading of two short paragraphs. As I finish reading each paragraph, write down as much as you can remember from what you’ve heard.


Impacts on memory
Impacts on memory teaching

  • Meaning-making

  • Concentration and interference

  • Rehearsal

  • Contexts of learning and recalling

  • Motivation



Forms of information processing
Forms of information processing teaching

  • Stage / multi-store theory

  • Levels-of-processing theory

  • Connectionist theory


Stage theory of memory
Stage theory of memory teaching

  • Sensory memory / register

Salvador Dali’s Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

  • Short-term or working memory teaching

  • Elaboration / organisation:

    -- Connecting the info to what you already know

  • Rehearsal / repetition:

    -- Useful for retaining info you plan to use and then forget

  • ‘Chunking’


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching


Using the info processing approach in the classroom krause et al 2011 p 207
Using the info-processing approach in the classroom teaching(Krause, et al., 2011, p.207)


Constructivism
constructivism teaching

  • An umbrella term referring to a vast range of different theories

  • Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel, Lave, Palincsar, and Dewey

  • Is Vygotsky a constructivist? (Liu & Matthews, 2005)


Constructivism cont d
Constructivism, cont’d teaching

  • Learner are active in constructing their own knowledge

  • Social interactions are important in knowledge construction

  • Individual / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism


Individual constructivism
Individual constructivism teaching

  • Individual thinking and knowledge development

  • Not concerned with the ‘correct’ knowledge but with meaning-making

  • Knowledge originated from reflecting and (re)organising thoughts

  • Discovery learning

  • Inquiry and problem-based learning


Discovery learning woolfolk margetts 2010
Discovery learning teaching(Woolfolk & Margetts, 2010)

  • Scenario:

  • You are being interviewed for a job in a school with students of a wide range of ethnicities and cultural backgrounds. The principal asks: ‘How would you teach abstract concepts to a student who just arrived in the country and can’t speak or read much in English?’

  • An example of a discovery learning lesson: What is fruit?



Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

  • J. Bruner teaching

  • Learning focusing on essential structure of a subject matter

  • Students identify and discover key structures and principles by themselves

  • Inductive reasoning

  • Intuitive thinking


Social constructivism
Social teachingconstructivism

  • Knowledge is constructed from social interactions and experience

  • Learning is contextualised by social and cultural environment

  • Development is the appropriation of cultural tools of reasoning and acting


Cognitive apprenticeship
Cognitive apprenticeship teaching

  • Cooperative and collaborative learning

  • Situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship

  • Reciprocal teaching

  • An example: Apprenticeship in mathematics problem solving


References
references teaching

  • Good, T. L. & Brophy, J. E. (1990) Educational psychology: a realistic approach, 4th ed., Longman, NY.

  • Liu, C. H. & Matthews, R. (2005) Vygotsky’s philosophy: constructivism and its criticisms examined, International Education Journal, 6 (3), pp.386-399.

  • Perkins, D. N. (1991). Technology meets constructivism: Do they make a marriage? Educational Technology , May, 18-23.

  • Woolfolk, A. & Margetts, K. (2010) Educational Psychology, Pearson, NSW.