Children are our most important resource Think Safety First Not Speed First Bus Safety Program Mirrors & Date SAFETY
Safety Training Presentation Mirror Adjustment, Field Of Vision And The FMVSS-111 Mustafa Abdullah Safety & Training Instructor
Inside the Danger Zone FMVSS-111 Field of Vision Cone Set-up Student Walking Area FIELD of VISION CHART
School Bus Mirrors Every week during the school year 23.5 million children begin and end each day with a trip on a school bus. More than 400,000 school buses travel approximately 4.3 billion miles every year. Between 1989 and 1999, an average of 10 passengers were killed each year in school bus crashes. To put this in perspective, during 2001 alone, motor vehicle crashes claimed the lives of approximately 2,000 children between the ages of 5 and 15.
These statistics indicate that school buses are very safe. Because of the importance of school bus transportation, NHTSA has established several safety standards to maintain this level of safety. Based on data from school bus crashes, NHTSA is able to determine what types of school bus safety standards are necessary. Specifically, NHTSA has prepared safety standards focusing on the human, vehicle and environmental variables that effect the level of safety associated with school bus transportation.
Although NHTSA and several other safety organizations acknowledge that school bus transportation is virtually the safest mode of transportation in the United States, these organizations remain committed to enhancing school bus safety. This commitment requires these organizations to continue the learning process and determine methods of making this safe form of transportation even safer. NHTSA requires that buses be equipped with mirrors that allow the driver to see areas in front of and along both sides of the bus to decrease the likelihood of an unseen child being hit by the school bus.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that 96 percent of the estimated 8,500 to 12,000 children injured in school bus accidents are usually considered minor injuries--bumps, bruises, scrapes. Most injuries and fatalities involving school buses are pedestrian accidents that occur while the students are getting on and off the school bus.
The area surrounding the bus at loading and unloading areas is often referred to as the “danger zone” because it is the area where children are at the greatest risk of being hit by the school bus or a passing car. Every year, on the average, 23 children are killed while loading and unloading around school buses. In most cases, the child is waiting to board the bus or has just gotten off and is struck by the bus or a passing motorist. Since bus drivers are faced with several blind spots, they are not always able to see students walking in front of or behind the bus. According to NHTSA, there are three times as many pedestrians fatalities as school bus occupant fatalities. Since more children are killed outside the school bus, it is important to address pedestrian safety issues.
Conclusion School buses transport the nation’s most precious cargo-children. Because of this tremendous responsibility, school buses must be held to the highest level of safety. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has instituted several safety standards and regulations to ensure that school buses provide higher levels of safety than other passenger vehicles. Additionally,NHTSA has recognized the importance of training school bus drivers regarding the dangers associated with the loading and unloading area around the bus and safe crossing of highway-rail grade crossings.
Historically, school bus transportation is the safest method of transporting children every day to school and extracurricular events. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and state legislatures, through FMVSS, safety standards, regulations and studies are working to ensure this tradition continues and school buses remain the safest method of highway transportation.
CORRECT MIRROR ADJUSTMENT: Proper adjustment and use of all mirrors is vital to the safe operation of the school bus in order to observe the danger zone around the bus and look for students, traffic, and other objects in this area. You should always check each mirror before operating the school bus, to obtain maximum viewing with the vision requirements of FMVSS 111, “mirror Systems”. If after your check it is necessary, have the mirrors adjusted. Proper Mirror Adjustment is Your Responsibility
Are students safe at the end of the crossing gate? Are your bus mirrors adjusted to see all of the cones in the danger zone? What is your field of vision?
At least once a day the driver should pull up to the Mirror check cones to verify that the mirrors are properly adjusted. The front bumper of the bus should come to rest just touching the first row of cones, with the bus centered between the outer two cones (J&K). The driver needs to use both of his mirror systems in order to see the entire field of vision. The mirror system on the sides of the bus, called the rear view or side view system is referred to in FMVSS111 as System A. The driver should use this system to see the tops of cones L,M,N and O. The system on the front of the bus commonly called the cross view or cross over system is called System B in FMVSS111. This mirror system should give the driver a view of the tops of cones A through K, as well as the tops of L, O, and P. Both cross view mirrors must be used together to see the complete field of view. Neither mirror by itself will cover the entire field. Certain cones can only be seen in each mirror. The mirror on the left should seen cones C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J & L. The mirror on the right should see cones A, B, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, O, & P FMVSS111
Daily Mirror Check Cone Setup Cone Setup for Big Bus Cone Setup for Vans
It is important to know: • What you can see • What you can’t see • What you should see • In each mirror on your bus
Convex Mirrors • The convex mirrors are located below the outside flat mirrors. They are used to monitor the left and right sides at a wide angle. They provide a view of traffic, clearances and students at the side of the bus. • Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted to see: • The entire side of the bus up to the mirror mounts. • Front of the rear tires touching the ground. • At least one traffic lane on either side of the bus.
Convex mirrors are curved and present a distorted image, they should not be used for gauging distance. • Convex mirrors are mainly for student detection, but you should also see: • ½ of the bus should be seen on the inside edge of each of the convex mirrors. • You must see the rear wheels on the ground and 150’ behind the bus • See the cones at the rear wheels, 6’ and 12’ out • You must see the passenger door by the overlap of the crossover and convex mirrors. • On the left side, the convex mirror will cover the ground from the stop sign back,
FLAT MIRRORS These mirrors are mounted at the left and right front corners of the bus at the side or front of the windshield. They are used to monitor traffic, check clearances and students on the sides and to the rear of the bus. There is a blind spot immediately below and in front of each mirror and directly in back of the rear bumper. The blind spot behind the bus could extend up to 400 feet depending on the width of the bus. Ensure that mirrors are properly adjusted so you can see:
200 feet or 4 bus lengths behind the bus • Along the sides of the bus • * The rear tires touching the ground
Flat mirrors are also used for viewing; • the road along the sides of the bus and to the rear while driving, as well as, • ½ of the bus should be seen on the inside edge of each flat mirror.. • the tops of the windows, the bumper and 200’ to the rear of the bus
BUS EDGE BUS EDGE SKY SKY 2/3 Horizon ROAD 2/3 Horizon ROAD LEFT FLAT MIRROR RIGHT FLAT MIRROR You should see more of the road than the sky in this mirror and the side of the bus along the edge You should see more of the sky in this mirror and the side of the bus along the edge FLAT MIRROR VIEW
CROSS OVER or CROSS VIEW MIRRORS ELLIPTICAL QUADRASPHERICAL OVAL These mirrors are mounted on both left and right front corners of the bus. They are used to see the “danger zone” area directly in front of the bus that is not visible by direct vision, and to view the “danger zone” areas to the left and right side of the bus, including the service door and front wheel areas. The mirrors present a view of people and objects that does not accurately reflect their size and distance from the bus. The driver must ensure that these mirrors are properly adjusted on a daily basis.
Crossover mirrors are used for seeing around the exterior or the “DANGER ZONE” of the bus. Because getting on and off the bus is the most dangerous part of the school bus ride, the loading and unloading area is called the “danger zone”.The danger zone is the area anywhere outside the bus where children are in the most danger of being hit., either by another vehicle or by their own bus. The danger zones extend as much as 30 ft. from the front bumper, 10 ft. from the left and right sides of the bus and 10 ft. behind the rear bumper of the school bus. In addition, the area to the left of the bus is always considered dangerous because of passing vehicles.The danger zone is anywhere that it can be difficult for the driver to see a child, especially a small child. The most dangerous parts of the “danger zone” are immediately in front of the bus and from in front of the rear wheels to the back of the bus
The Danger Zones are the most important part of the FMVSS-111 Field of Vision regulations. Drivers must be well aware of the area it covers and monitor it whenever you are loading or unloading students.
The front of the bus is the more dangerous, Why? The back of the bus is more dangerous, why? How long is the crossing gate? *Note There is no “walking area” arrow pointing to the rear!
The front crossing gate was designed to prevent students from crossing to close to the front of the bus. However sometimes even if a child is beyond the crossing gate, they may still be out of the field of vision of the driver. The actual blind spot for a child in the front of the bus can often even be out of the range of the crossover mirrors. Objects such as mirror housings, front hood ornaments, fender mounted turn signal lights, even the inspection sticker, can increase the blind spot distance. Items placed in the window such as stuffed animals, books or pictures also increase the blind spot distance. Notice that the crossing gate does not extend beyond the last row of cones
BEHIND THE BUS The blind spot behind the bus could extend up to 400 feet depending upon the width of the bus. Even with your mirrors adjusted properly, you still cannot see a car tailgating you or the parent coming up to your bus to drop off a child.
No matter how well your mirrors are adjusted, nothing can replace caution. No mirrors can be a substitute for good judgment. No matter how small an object appears to be in the mirror, do not move the bus until you investigate it.
With all the mirrors properly adjusted, the field of vision of the driver is improved to cover the most critical areas around the vehicle. However, if you don’t take the time to check your mirrors, you may as well not have them. The Mirror Grid was placed on this diagram to show what the mirrors must cover to meet FMVSS-111 Standards You must USE your mirrors to be a SAFE driver