Adjectives: Positive, Comparative, Superlative - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Adjectives: Positive, Comparative, Superlative
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Adjectives: Positive, Comparative, Superlative

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  1. Adjectives:Positive, Comparative, Superlative In Latin, as in English, adjectives are said to have three Degrees: (1) Positive – Adjective (2) Comparative – More [Adjective], [Adjective]er (3) Superlative – Most [Adjective], [Adjective]est The Degree of an adjective tell us the Degree to which a noun possesses a particular attribute: whether with no reference to another noun (Positive); more than another noun (Comparative); or the most out of a group of nouns (Superlative).

  2. Adjectives:Positive, Comparative, Superlative In Latin, as in English, the Comparative and Superlative forms of an adjective are formed by adding a suffix onto the root: Exempla: Positive Comparative Superlative Tall Taller Tallest Fast Faster Fastest Intelligent More Intelligent Most Intelligent Good Better Best

  3. I. Comparative Adjectives The Comparative Degree of an adjective in Latin is formed according to the following formula: Comparative = Stem + ior, ior, ius The Comparative is ALWAYS an Adjective of the 3rd Declension, but uses 3rd Declension noun endings. The Comparative Adjective is translated according to the following formula: Comparative = More [Adjective], [Adjective]er NB: The Latin suffix –ior and the English suffix –er are cognate with one another.

  4. I. Comparative Adjectives Comparative = Stem + ior, ior, ius Laetus, a, um  Stem = laet M F N Laetior Laetior Laetius Laetioris Laetioris Laetioris Laetiori Laetiori Laetiori Laetiorem Laetiorem Laetius Laetiore Laetiore Laetiore Laetiores Laetiores Laetiora Laetiorum Laetiorum Laetiorum Laetioribus Laetioribus Laetioribus Laetiores Laetiores Laetiora Laetioribus Laetioribus Laetioribus

  5. I. Comparative Adjectives Comparative = Stem + ior, ior, ius Pulcher, Pulchra, Pulchrum  Stem = pulchr M F N Pulchrior Pulchrior Pulchrius Pulchrioris Pulchrioris Pulchrioris Pulchriori Pulchriori Pulchriori Pulchriorem Pulchriorem Pulchrius Pulchriore Pulchriore Pulchriore Pulchriores Pulchriores Pulchriora Pulchriorum Pulchriorum Pulchriorum Pulchrioribus Pulchrioribus Pulchrioribus Pulchriores Pulchriores Pulchriora Pulchrioribus Pulchrioribus Pulchrioribus

  6. I. Comparative Adjectives Comparative = Stem + ior, ior, ius Felix, Felicis  Stem = felic M F N Felicior Felicior Felicius Felicioris Felicioris Felicioris Feliciori Feliciori Feliciori Feliciorem Feliciorem Felicius Feliciore Feliciore Feliciore Feliciores Feliciores Feliciora Feliciorum Feliciorum Feliciorum Felicioribus Felicioribus Felicioribus Feliciores Feliciores Feliciora Felicioribus Felicioribus Felicioribus

  7. I. Comparative Adjectives Comparative = Stem + ior, ior, ius Fortis, is, e  Stem = fort M F N Fortior Fortior Fortius Fortioris Fortioris Fortioris Fortiori Fortiori Fortiori Fortiorem Fortiorem Fortius Fortiore Fortiore Fortiore Fortiores Fortiores Fortiora Fortiorum Fortiorum Fortiorum Fortioribus Fortioribus Fortioribus Fortiores Fortiores Fortiora Fortioribus Fortioribus Fortioribus

  8. I. Comparative Adjectives Comparative = Stem + ior, ior, ius Acer, Acris, Acre  Stem = acr M F N Acrior Acrior Acrius Acrioris Acrioris Acrioris Acriori Acriori Acriori Acriorem Acriorem Acrius Acriore Acriore Acriore Acriores Acriores Acriora Acriorum Acriorum Acriorum Acrioribus Acrioribus Acrioribus Acriores Acriores Acriora Acrioribus Acrioribus Acrioribus

  9. I. Comparative Adjectives Comparative = Stem + ior, ior, ius Celer, Celeris, Celere  Stem = celer M F N Celerior Celerior Celerius Celerioris Celerioris Celerioris Celeriori Celeriori Celeriori Celeriorem Celeriorem Celerius Celeriore Celeriore Celeriore Celeriores Celeriores Celeriora Celeriorum Celeriorum Celeriorum Celerioribus Celerioribus Celerioribus Celeriores Celeriores Celeriora Celerioribus Celerioribus Celerioribus

  10. I. Comparative Adjectives NB: (1) Most adjectives ending in –eus (and some ending in –ius) form their Comparative Degree by using the adverb magis, ‘more,’ with the adjective. Exemplum: Idoneus, a, um – suitable  magis idoneus – more suitable

  11. I. Comparative Adjectives:Object of Comparison NB: (2) When the Comparative Adjective is used, Latin can express the object of the comparison in one of two ways: (1) quam – the adverb ‘quam’ means ‘than.’ The object of comparison goes in the same case as the noun modified by the Comparative. (2) Ablative of Comparison – the object of comparison goes in the Ablative case. ‘quam’ is not used.

  12. I. Comparative Adjectives:Object of Comparison Exempla: Frater altior quam ego est. Frater altior me est. Maiores hostes ferociores quam illos pugnaverunt. Maiores hostes ferociores illis pugnaverunt.

  13. I. Comparative Adjectives:Object of Comparison Exempla: Frater altior quam ego est. Frater altior me est. My brother is taller than me. Maiores hostes ferociores quam illos pugnaverunt. Maiores hostes ferociores illis pugnaverunt. Our ancestors fought enemy fiercer than these.

  14. II. Superlative Adjectives The Superlative Degree of an adjective in Latin is formed according to the following formula: Superlative = Stem + issimus, a, um The Superlative is ALWAYS an adjective of the 1st and 2nd Delcension. The Superlative Adjective is translated according to the following formula: Superlative = Most [Adjective], [Adjective]est NB: The Latin suffix –issimus and the English suffix –est are cognate with one another.

  15. II. Superlative Adjectives Superlative = Stem + issimus, a, um laetus, a, um  Stem = laet M F N Laetissimus Laetissima Laetissimum Laetissimi Laetissimae Laetissimi Laetissimo Laetissimae Laetissimo Laetissimum Laetissimam Laetissimum Laetissimo Laetissima Laetissimo Laetissimi Laetissimae Laetissima Laetissimorum Laetissimarum Laetissimorum Laetissimis Laetissimis Laetissimis Laetissimos Laetissimas Laetissima Laetissimis Laetissimis Laetissimis

  16. II. Superlative Adjectives Superlative = Stem + issimus, a, um Felix, Felicis  Stem = felic M F N Felicissimus Felicissima Felicissimum Felicissimi Felicissimae Felicissimi Felicissimo Felicissimae Felicissimo Felicissimum Felicissimam Felicissimum Felicissimo Felicissima Felicissimo Felicissimi Felicissimae Felicissima Felicissimorum Felicissimarum Felicissimorum Felicissimis Felicissimis Felicissimis Felicissimos Felicissimas Felicissima Felicissimis Felicissimis Felicissimis

  17. II. Superlative Adjectives Superlative = Stem + issimus, a, um Fortis, is, e  Stem = fort M F N Fortissimus Fortissima Fortissimum Fortissimi Fortissimae Fortissimi Fortissimo Fortissimae Fortissimo Fortissimum Fortissimam Fortissimum Fortissimo Fortissima Fortissimo Fortissimi Fortissimae Fortissima Fortissimorum Fortissimarum Fortissimorum Fortissimis Fortissimis Fortissimis Fortissimos Fortissimas Fortissima Fortissimis Fortissimis Fortissimis

  18. II. Superlative Adjectives –er Stems NB: Superlative of –er Stems = Stem + rimus, a, um Pulcher, Pulchra, Pulchrum  Stem = Pulcher M F N Pulcherrimus Pulcherrima Pulcherrimum Pulcherrimi Pulcherrimae Pulcherrimi Pulcherrimo Pulcherrimae Pulcherrimo Pulcherrimum Pulcherrimam Pulcherrimum Pulcherrimo Pulcherrima Pulcherrimo Pulcherrimi Pulcherrimae Pulcherrima Pulcherrimorum Pulcherrimarum Pulcherrimorum Pulcherrimis Pulcherrimis Pulcherrimis Pulcherrimos Pulcherrimas Pulcherrima Pulcherrimis Pulcherrimis Pulcherrimis

  19. II. Superlative Adjectives –er Stems NB: Superlative of –er Stems = Stem + rimus, a, um Acer, Acris, Acre  Stem = acer M F N Acerrimus Acerrima Acerrimum Acerrimi Acerrimae Acerrimi Acerrimo Acerrimae Acerrimo Acerrimum Acerrimam Acerrimum Acerrimo Acerrima Acerrimo Acerrimi Acerrimae Acerrima Acerrimourm Acerrimarum Acerrimorum Acerrimis Acerrimis Acerrimis Acerrimos Acerrimas Acerrima Acerrimis Acerrimis Acerrimis

  20. II. Superlative Adjectives –er Stems NB: Superlative of –er Stems = Stem + rimus, a, um Celer, Celeris, Celere  Stem = celer M F N Celerrimus Celerrima Celerrimum Celerrimi Celerrimae Celerrimi Celerrimo Celerrimae Celerrimo Celerrimum Celerrimam Celerrimum Celerrimo Celerrima Celerrimo Celerrimi Celerrimae Celerrima Celerrimorum Celerrimarum Celerrimorum Celerrimis Celerrimis Celerrimis Celerrimos Celerrimas Celerrima Celerrimis Celerrimis Celerrimis

  21. II. Superlative Adjectives –lis Stems NB: Six adjectives ending in –lis form their Superlative by adding –limus to the stem: Positive Comparative Superlative Facilis, is, e Facilior, ior, ius Facillimus, a, um Difficilis, is, e Difficilior, ior, ius Difficillimus, a, um Similis, is, e Similior, ior, ius Simillimus, a, um Dissimilis, is, e Dissimilior, ior, ius Dissimillimus, a, um Gracilis, is, e Gracilior, ior, ius Gracillimus, a, um Humilis, is, e Humilior, ior, ius Humillimus, a, um Other –lis adjectives form their Superlative regularly.

  22. II. Superlative Adjectives NB: (1) Adjectives that form their Comparative using the adverb ‘magis’ form their Superlative using the adverb ‘maxime,’ ‘most.’ Exemplum: Idoneus, a, um – suitable  maxime idoneus – most suitable

  23. II. Superlative Adjectives NB: (2) The adverb ‘quam’ + the Superlative is translated as ‘as [adjective] as possible.’ Exempla: quam fortissimus as brave as possible quam celerrimus as quick as possible

  24. III. Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives Several adjectives form their Comparative and Superlative Degrees irregularly. Although the stems of these Comparative and Superlatives are irregular, nonetheless they decline according to the regular pattern of Comparatives and Superlatives. The following six adjectives are the most common adjectives which have irregular Comparative and Superlative forms:

  25. III. Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives Positive Comparative Superlative Bonus, a, um Melior, ior, ius Optimus, a, um Good Better Best Malus, a, um Peior, ior, ius Pessimus, a, um Bad Worse Worst Magnus, a, um Maior, ior, ius Maximus, a, um Great, Large Greater, Larger Greatest, Largest Parvus, a, um Minor, Minor, Minus Minimus, a, um Small Smaller Smallest Multus, a, um Plus, Pluris (neuter) Plurimus, a, um Much More Most Multi, ae, a Plures, es, a Plurimi, ae, a Many More Most

  26. III. Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives The following adjectives also form their Comparative and Superlative Degrees irregularly, but are not very common: Positive Comparative Superlative Nequam (indec.) Nequior, ior, ius Nequissimus, a, um Worthless More Worthless Most Worthless Frugi Frugalior, ior, ius Frugalissimus, a, um Useful More Useful Most Useful Dexter, ra, rum Dexterior, ior, ius Dextimus, a, um Handy More Handy Most Handy