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FORCIBLE ENTRY. INTRODUCTION. Modern society is security conscious P rivate homes C ommercial occupancies Vehicles Forcible entry The technique used by fire department personnel to gain access to a structure whose normal means of access is locked, blocked or nonexistent . INTRODUCTION.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Modern society is security conscious
    • Private homes
    • Commercial occupancies
    • Vehicles
  • Forcible entry
    • The technique used by fire department personnel to gain access to a structure whose normal means of access is locked, blocked or nonexistent
  • Forcible entry, when properly used, does a minimal amount of damage to the structure or structural components and provides quick access for firefighters
    • should not be used when normal means of access are readily available
    • may be required to open means of egress (exit) from structures
  • Knowing the construction features of doors, windows and other barriers, knowing proper tool selection and knowing forcible entry techniques greatly enhances a firefighter’s effort on the fireground
  • Ability to use forcible entry techniques quickly and effectively demonstrates professionalism to the community you serve
forcible entry tools
  • A firefighter must have a complete working knowledge of the tools available to perform the task
    • Using the proper tool will make the difference in whether the barrier faced is successfully forced
  • Forcible entry tools can be divided into four basic categories
    • Cutting tools
    • Prying tools
    • Pushing / pulling tools
    • Striking tools
forcible entry tools1
  • Cutting Tools
    • Many different types
      • Often specific to the type of materials they can cut and how fast they can cut them
    • No such thing as a single cutting tool that will efficiently cut all materials
      • Using a cutting tool in a way it was not designed can destroy the tool and endanger the operator
    • Cutting tools may be either manual or powered
cutting tools
  • Axes and Hatchets
    • The most common type of cutting tool available in the fire service
    • Two basic types
      • Pick-head
      • Flat-head
    • Pick-head axe
      • 6 pound or 8 pound head
      • Handle made of either wood or fiberglass
      • Effective for cutting through natural and lightweight materials
cutting tools1
  • Axes and Hatchets
    • Flat-head axe
      • 6 or 8 pound head
      • Handles made of either wood or fiberglass
      • Cuts through a variety of natural and lightweight materials
      • Can be used as a striking tool
cutting tools2
  • Handsaws
    • There are times when the handsaw is necessary because of a small work space
    • Commonly used handsaws
      • Carpenter's handsaw
      • Keyhole saw
      • Hacksaws
      • Coping saw
cutting tools3
  • Power Saws
    • Make fast and efficient cuts in a variety of materials
    • Times when these saws should and should not be used
    • Divided into categories
      • Rotary (circular) saw
      • Reciprocating saw
      • Chain saw
      • Ventilation saw
cutting tools4
  • Power Saws
    • Do not push a saw (or any tool) beyond the limits of its design and purpose
      • Two things may occur
        • Tool failure
        • Injury to the operator
    • Never use a power saw in a flammable atmosphere
    • Always use eye protection when operating any power saw
cutting tools5
  • Power Saws
    • Rotary (Circular) Saw
      • Fire service version is often gasoline powered
      • Blades spin more than 6,000 rpm
      • Blades range from large-toothed blades for quick rough cuts to fine teeth for a more precise cut
      • Carbide tipped teeth are superior to standard blades
        • Less prone to dulling with heavy use
cutting tools6
  • Power Saws
    • Rotary (Circular) Saw
      • Blades specifically designed for cutting metal are also available
        • Often used in forcible entry
      • Following both manufacturer’s recommendations and department SOGs are imperative to maintaining a firefighter’s personal safety when operating saws
cutting tools7
  • Reciprocating Saw
    • Powerful, versatile and highly controllable saw
    • Can use a variety of blades for cutting different materials
    • Require electricity
cutting tools8
  • Chain Saw (Vent Saw)
    • Used for years by the logging industry
      • Sometimes more efficient than the rotary saw
      • Powerful enough to penetrate dense material yet lightweight enough to be easily handled in awkward positions
      • Should not be used to cut metal
cutting tools9
  • Metal Cutting Devices and Cutting Torches
    • Bolt cutters
      • Cuts bolts, iron bars, pins, cables, hasps, chains and some padlock shackles
      • Advances in security technology are limiting the use of bolt cutters
        • Materials shatter the cutting surface or cause the handles to fail
cutting tools10
  • Metal Cutting Devices and Cutting Torches
    • Cutting Torch
      • Operates by burning away the material being cut
      • Uses a mixture of flammable gases to generate a flame with a temperature of more than 5,700° F
prying tools
  • Prying Tools
    • Provide an advantage for opening doors, windows, locks and moving heavy objects
    • Hand (manual) prying tools use the basic principle of the lever to provide a mechanical advantage
      • Leverage applied incorrectly works against the firefighter
    • Hydraulic prying tools can either be powered hydraulic or manual hydraulic
      • Manual hydraulic tools operate slower
prying tools1
  • Manual Prying Tools
    • Variety of hand prying tools is available to the fire service
      • Crowbar
      • Halligan-type bar
      • Hux bar
      • Claw tool
      • Kelly tool
      • Pry axe
      • Flat bar
prying tools2
  • Hydraulic Prying Tools
    • Hydraulic rescue spreader tool
    • Most often associated with vehicle extrication has some uses in forcible entry
      • Depending on manufacturer, spread as much as 32 inches
prying tools3
  • Hydraulic Prying Tools
    • Hydraulic ram
      • Designed primarily for vehicle extrication
      • Spreading capabilities ranging from 36 inches to an extended length of nearly 63 inches
      • Place the ram in between either side of a door frame to spread the frame apart
prying tools4
  • Hydraulic Prying Tools
    • Hydraulic door opener, is a hand-operated spreader device and is relatively lightweight
    • Consists of a hand pump and spreader device
    • Pressure usually causes the locking mechanism or door to fail
    • Valuable tool when more than one door must be forced
      • Apartments or hotels
pushing pulling tools
  • Pushing / Pulling Tools
    • Limited use in forcible entry
      • Tool of choice for breaking glass and opening walls or ceilings
    • Tools includes
      • Standard pike pole
      • Clemens hook
      • Plaster hook
      • Drywall hook
      • San Francisco hook
      • Multipurpose hook
      • Roofman's hook
pushing pulling tools1
  • Pushing / Pulling Tools
    • Gives the firefighter additional reach
      • Stay out of the way of falling debris
    • Pike poles and hooks should not be depended on for leverage
striking tools
  • Striking Tools
    • Basic hand tool consisting of a weighted head attached to a handle
      • Sledgehammer (8, 10 and 16 pounds)
      • Maul
      • Flat-head axe
      • Sledge hammer
      • Multi-tool
tool combinations
  • Tool Combinations
    • No single forcible entry tool provides the firefighter with the needed force or leverage to handle all forcible entry situations
    • The most important factor to consider is selecting the proper tools to do the job
      • Pre-incident surveys will help to determine what tools are required
tool safety
  • Hand and power tools used in the fire service can be extremely dangerous if misused or used carelessly
  • In atmospheres that could be explosive, extreme caution should be taken in the use of power and hand tools that may cause arcs or sparks
tool safety1
  • Prying Tool Safety
    • Using prying tools incorrectly creates a safety hazard
      • Not acceptable to use a "cheater bar"
        • Can put forces on the tool that are greater than the tool was designed to handle
tool safety2
  • Circular Saw Safety
    • Must be used with extreme care to prevent injury from the high-speed rotary blade
    • Store blades in a clean, dry environment free of hydrocarbon fumes
      • Hydrocarbons will attack the bonding material in the blades and make them subject to sudden disintegration during use
    • Match the saw to the task and the material to be cut
      • Never push a saw beyond its design limitations
    • Wear proper protective equipment
    • Do not use any power saw when working in a flammable atmosphere or near flammable liquids
tool safety3
  • Circular Saw Safety
    • Keep unprotected and nonessential people out of the work area
    • Follow manufacturer's guidelines for proper saw operation
    • Keep blades and chain well sharpened
      • A dull saw is more likely to cause an accident than a sharp one
    • Be aware of potential hidden hazards
tool safety4
  • Carrying Tools
    • Carry tools and tool combinations in the safest manner possible
    • Axes
      • Carry the axe with the blade away from the body
      • Pick-head axes
        • Grasp the pick with a hand to cover it
      • Axes should never be carried on the shoulder
tool safety5
  • Carrying Tools
    • Prying Tools
      • Carry these tools with any pointed or sharp edges away from the body
    • Combinations of Tools
      • Strap tool combinations together
      • Halligan type bars and flat-head axes can be “married” together and strapped
tool safety6
  • Carrying Tools
    • Pike Poles and Hooks
      • Carry with the head down, close to the ground and ahead of the body
      • These tools can severely injure anyone poked with the working end of the tool
tool safety7
  • Carrying Tools
    • Striking Tools
      • Keep the heads of these tools close to the ground
      • Maintain a firm grip
    • Power Tools
      • Never carry a power tool that is running
      • Carry the tool to the area where the work will be performed and start it there
care and maintenance
  • Care and Maintenance of Forcible Entry Tools
    • Proper care and maintenance of all forcible entry tools are essential ingredients of any forcible entry operation
      • Tools will function as designed if they are properly maintained and kept in the best of condition
care and maintenance1
  • Wood Handles
    • Inspect the handle for cracks, blisters or splinters
    • Sand the handle to minimize hand injuries
    • Wash the handle with mild detergent, rinse and wipe dry
      • Do not soak the handle in water because it will cause the wood to swell
    • Apply a coat of boiled linseed oil to the handle to prevent roughness and warping
      • Do not paint or varnish the handle
    • Check the tightness of the tool head
    • Limit tool marking
care and maintenance2
  • Fiberglass Handles
    • Wash the handle with mild detergent, rinse and wipe dry
    • Check the tightness of the tool head
  • Cutting Edges
    • Inspect the cutting edge for nicks, tears or metal spurs
    • Replace cutting edges when required
    • File the cutting edges by hand
      • Grinding weakens the tool
care and maintenance3
  • Plated Surfaces
    • Inspect for damage
    • Wipe plated surfaces clean or wash with mild detergent and water
  • Unprotected Metal Surfaces
    • Keep free of rust
    • Oil the metal surface lightly. avoid using any metal protectant that contains trichloroethane
    • Avoid painting
    • Inspect the metal for spurs, burrs or sharp edges and file them off when found
care and maintenance4
  • Axe Heads
    • The manner in which the axe head is maintained directly affects how well it works
    • If the blade is extremely sharp and its body is ground too thin pieces of the blade may break when cutting
    • If the body of the blade is too thick, regardless of its sharpness, it may be difficult to drive the axe head through ordinary objects
care and maintenance5
  • Power Equipment
    • Read and follow manufacturer’s instructions
    • Inspect and ensure power tools will start
    • Check blades for completeness and readiness
    • Replace blades that are worn
    • Check all electrical components for cuts and frays
    • Ensure that all guards are functional and in place
    • Ensure that fuel is fresh
      • Fuel mixtures may deteriorate over time
size up
  • Door Size-Up and Construction Features
    • Primary obstacle firefighters face in gaining access to a building is a locked or blocked door
    • Size-up of the door is an essential part of the forcible entry task
      • How the door functions
      • How it is constructed
      • How it is locked
size up1
  • Door Size-Up and Construction Features
    • Doors function in one of the following ways
      • Swinging (either inward or outward)
      • Sliding
      • Revolving
      • Overhead
size up2
  • Door Size-Up and Construction Features
    • Firefighters should try the door to make sure that it is locked before force is used
      • “try before you pry!”
    • If the door is locked, begin additional size-up
      • Which way does it swing?
        • Look for the door
        • In or out?
      • Does it slide left or right?
      • Does it roll up?
size up3
  • Door Size-Up and Construction Features
    • Access doors to residences usually swing inward
    • Commercial, public assembly doors and industrial doors, swing outward
    • There will be times that even that best size-up and forcible entry effort will not be successful
      • Remember not to get focused on one effort and one technique
      • Spending too much time forcing a door is counterproductive
      • If the door proves too well secured, find another door
size up4
  • Door Size-Up and Construction Features
    • After determining how a door functions, you must understand how the door is constructed
      • Doors range in construction types from interior hollow core to high-security steel
    • Most common door encountered is the wood swinging door, followed by the steel swinging door
size up5
  • Wood Swinging Doors
    • Three general categories of wood swinging doors
      • Panel
      • Slab
      • Ledge
    • Entry doors on structures are usually panel or slab
size up6
  • Wood Swinging Doors
    • The door is only one component of a door assembly
    • Doorjambs are the sides of the opening into which the door is fitted
      • Rabbeted jamb
        • A shoulder milled into the casing that the door closes against to form a seal
      • Stopped jamb
        • Has a piece of molding added to the door frame for the door to close on
size up7
  • Panel Doors
    • wood panel doors are made of solid wood members insert with panels
      • panels may be wood or plastic
    • panel doors often have panels fitted into the door to allow in light
      • glass
      • Lexan (polycarbonate)
      • plastic
      • Plexiglas
size up8
  • Slab Doors
    • a very common door
    • constructed in two ways
      • solid core
      • hollow core
    • many interior doors in residences are hollow core
      • core or center portion of door is made up of web or grid of glued wood strips over which several layers of plywood veneer panels have been glued
size up9
  • Slab Doors (cont.)
    • most exterior slab doors found on newly constructed residences are hollow core
      • exterior slab doors on older homes may be solid core
    • not pierced by windows or other openings
      • panels on a slab door are purely decorative
size up10
  • Slab Doors (cont.)
    • the core of a solid core door is constructed of some type of solid material
    • very old homes, the door may be made of thick planks that have been tongue and grooved together
    • modern solid core doors may be filled with a material used for insulation or soundproofing
    • plywood veneer covering
size up11
  • Ledge Doors
    • also know as “batten doors”
    • found on warehouses, storerooms, barns and sheds
    • made of built-up materials, including boards, plywood sheeting, particleboard, etc.
    • generally locked with some type of surface lock, hasp, padlock, bolt or bar
    • hinges generally pin type, fastened with screws or bolts
size up12
  • Metal Swinging Doors
    • are classified as hollow metal, metal covered and tubular
    • more difficult to force due to their construction and design
      • most often set in a metal doorjamb
      • very little “spring” to the door
    • generally considered impractical to force a metal door in a metal frame in masonry
size up13
  • Metal Swinging Doors (cont.)
    • vary greatly in their construction
    • metal covered doors may have a solid wood door underneath the metal or it may be a hollow metal door filled with fire-resistive materials
    • the structural design of tubular metal doors is of seamless rectangular tube sections
      • groove is provided in the rectangular tube for glass or metal panels
      • found on exterior openings of modern buildings
size up14
  • Metal Swinging Doors (cont.)
    • tubular aluminum doors are comparatively light in weight, are strong and are not subject to much spring
    • when faced with the need to force a metal door
      • consider the use of power tools, especially rotary saws or hydraulic tools
    • do not waste too much time trying to force the door
      • may be easier to breach the wall next to a steel door
size up15
  • Sliding Doors
    • travel either left or right of their opening and in the same plane as the opening
    • attached to a metal track by roller or guide wheels
    • often called pocket doors when used as an interior door
    • more common type of sliding door is the door assembly used in patio areas of residences or as doors to porches or balconies in houses, hotels and apartments
size up16
  • Sliding Doors (cont.)
    • the glass panels and sliding door are heavy glass window panels set in a metal or wood frame
      • glass panel normally double-thickness glass
      • newer doors may be triple-glass pane
      • some doors may have tempered (safety) glass
size up17
  • Sliding Doors (cont.)
    • may sometimes be barred or blocked by a metal rod or a special device
      • commonly called “burglar blocks”
      • easily seen from the outside
      • practically eliminates any possibility of forcing without causing excessive damage
size up18
  • Revolving Doors
    • made up of quadrants that revolve around a center shaft
    • turns within a metal or glass housing assembly that is open on each side to allow user’s entry and egress
    • may be locked in various ways and in general, they are considered difficult to force when locked
size up19
  • Revolving Doors (cont.)
    • usually, there are swinging doors on either side of the revolving door
      • more effective to force through the swinging door
    • all revolving doors are equipped with a mechanism that allows them to collapse during an emergency
    • three basic types of mechanisms involved
      • panic proof
      • drop arm
      • metal braced
size up20
  • Revolving Doors (cont.)
    • Panic-Proof Type
      • has a ¼ inch cable holding the door quadrants apart
      • triggered by forces pushing in opposite directions on the quadrants
    • Drop-Arm Type
      • has a solid arm passing through one of the quadrants
        • a pawl is located on the quadrant the arm passes through
      • press the pawl to disengage the arm, then push the quadrant to one side
size up21
  • Revolving Doors (cont.)
    • Metal-Braced Type
      • resembles a gate hook and eye assembly
      • to collapse, lift the hook and fasten it back against the fixed quadrant
      • hooks are located on both side of the quadrant
size up22
  • Overhead Doors
    • generally constructed of wood, metal or fiberglass
    • pose quite a forcible entry problem
      • heavily secured
      • sometimes motor driven and usually spring loaded or balanced
      • forcible entry may be difficult, but it is not impossible
    • classified as follows
      • sectional (folding)
      • rolling steel
      • slab
size up23
  • Overhead Doors (cont.)
    • sectional (folding) overhead door is not too difficult to force entry through unless it is either motor driven or remotely controlled
      • latch mechanism is generally located in the center of the door
        • controls two locks, one located on each side of the door
        • lock and latch may also be located on only one side
size up24
  • Overhead Doors (cont.)
    • sectional overhead doors may be forced by prying upward at the bottom of the door with a good prying tool
      • less damage will be done and time will be saved if a panel is removed and the latch is turned from the inside
      • may be locked with a padlock through a hole at either end of the bar or the padlock may even be in the track
      • cut a hole in the door to gain access and remove the padlock
size up25
  • Overhead Doors (cont.)
    • pivoting or overhead slab doors, sometimes called “awning doors”, are more difficult to force due to the nature of the door
      • spring mechanism must pivot the door out and up
      • care must be taken to not jam the door in its tracks or it will not open
      • wood pivoting doors are very heavy
      • locked similarly to the sectional or folding doors
size up26
  • Overhead Doors (cont.)
    • pry outward with a bar at each side near the bottom
      • tends to bend the lock bar enough to pass the keeper
size up27
  • Overhead Doors (cont.)
    • rolling steel doors, used as high-security doors
      • designed to keep people out
      • locked with several padlocks and pins
      • can be manually operated, mechanically operated or motor driven
      • among the toughest forcible entry challenges faced by firefighters
      • best accessed by cutting a triangle-shaped opening
        • rotary rescue saw or a cutting torch
size up28
  • Fire Doors
    • protect door openings in walls that are required to be rated as fire-barrier assemblies or fire wall
    • assembly includes the door, frame and associated hardware
    • types of standard fire doors
      • horizontal and vertical sliding
      • single and double swinging
      • overhead rolling
size up29
  • Fire Doors (cont.)
    • fire doors may be mechanically, manually or electrically operated
    • two standard means by which fire doors operate
      • self-closing
        • when the door is opened, it returns to the closed position on its own
      • automatic-closing
        • normally remain open, close when the hold-open device releases the door upon activation of either a local smoke detector or a fire alarm system
size up30
  • Fire Doors (cont.)
    • swinging fire doors
      • generally used on stair enclosures
      • opened and closed frequently
    • vertical sliding fire doors normally open and arranged to close automatically
    • overhead rolling fire doors
      • installed where space limitations prevent installation of other types
      • arranged to close automatically
size up31
  • Fire Doors (cont.)
    • most interior fire doors do not lock when they close
    • when passing through an opening protected by a fire door, block the door open to prevent its closing and trapping you
      • fire doors have also been known to close and cut off the water supply in a hoseline
locks and locking devices
  • Locking devices vary from a simple lock to a series of very sophisticated locking devices
  • Locks are divided into four basic types
    • mortise lock
    • bored (cylindrical) lock
    • rim lock
    • padlock
locks and locking devices1
  • Mortise Lock
    • designed to fit into a cavity in the door
      • consists of a latch mechanism and an opening device
    • when the lock is in the lock position, the bolt protrudes from the lock into a keeper that is mortised into the jamb
locks and locking devices2
  • Mortise Lock (cont.)
    • newer mortise locks may also have larger and longer dead-bolt features for added security
    • found on private residences, commercial buildings and industrial buildings
locks and locking devices3
  • Bored (Cylindrical) Lock
    • named because their installation involves boring two holes at right angles to one another
      • one through the face of the door to accommodate the main locking mechanism and the other in the edge of the door to receive the latch or bolt mechanism
    • one type of bored lock is the key-in-knob lock
locks and locking devices4
  • Bored (Cylindrical) Lock
    • key-in-knob has a keyway in the outside knob
      • inside knob may contain either a keyway or a button
    • latch bolt usually no longer than ¾ inch
      • vulnerable to prying operations
locks and locking devices5
  • Rim Lock
    • one of the most common locks in use today
    • surface mounted
      • used as an add-on lock for doors that already have other types of locks
    • found in all types of occupancies
    • identified from the outside by a cylinder that is recessed into the door
locks and locking devices6
  • Padlock
    • include portable or detachable locking devices
    • two basic types of padlocks
      • regular
        • have shackles of ¼ inch or less in diameter
        • not case-hardened
      • heavy-duty
        • have shackles more than ¼ inch in diameter
        • case-hardened
        • toe and heal locking (both ends of the shackle are locked)
non destructive rapid entry method
  • Rapid-Entry Key Box System
    • all necessary keys to the building, storage areas, gates and elevators are kept in a key box
      • mounted at a high-visibility location on the building’s exterior
      • only fire department carries a master key
    • unauthorized duplication of the master key is prevented
      • key blanks are not available to locksmiths
      • cannot be duplicated with conventional equipment
conventional forcible entry
  • Conventional Forcible Entry
    • is the use of standard fire department tools to open doors and windows
    • if there are no glass panels in the door to break and a door is definitely locked
      • the firefighter must force the door open
      • the best combination is the 8-pound flat-head axe and the Halligan type bar
conventional forcible entry1
  • Breaking Glass
    • first technique of forcible entry is to break the glass near the door or in the door
      • reach inside and operate the lock mechanism
    • may be easier to break the glass, but will it cause more damage?
    • if breaking the glass is the most appropriate method of entry, do it!
conventional forcible entry2
  • Forcing Swinging Doors
    • a common type of door is one that swings to open and close
    • these doors can be either inward or outward swinging doors
    • forcing entry through these types of doors are basic skills
conventional forcible entry3
  • Forcing Swinging Doors (cont.)
    • inward swinging doors
      • conventional forcible entry of inward swinging doors requires either one or two skilled firefighters
conventional forcible entry4
  • Forcing Swinging Doors (cont.)
    • outward swinging doors
      • present a different set of problems
        • to get a forcible entry tool into the space between the door and the doorjamb, open that space and allow the lock bolt to slip from its keeper
      • sometimes called flush fitting doors
      • forced using either the adz end or the fork end of the Halligan type bar
conventional forcible entry5
  • Special Circumstances
    • circumstances where additional measures may need to be taken to force a door due to
      • building construction
      • door construction
      • higher security
    • a few of the doors needing additional forcing measures
      • double swinging doors
      • doors with drop bars
      • tempered plate glass doors
conventional forcible entry6
  • Special Circumstances (cont.)
    • double swinging doors
      • can present a problem depending on how they are secured
        • secured only by a mortise lock, the door can be pried apart far enough to let the bolt slip past the keeper
        • insert the adz end between the doors and pushing down and outward
        • security molding over the space between the two doors, must be removed
conventional forcible entry7
  • Special Circumstances (cont.)
    • Doors with Drop Bars
      • either wood or steel, dropped across the door and held in place by wood or metal stirrups
        • insert small narrow tool into space between double doors and try to lift bar up and out of its stirrup
        • cut a triangular hole into the door just below the bar
        • insert the blade of a rotary power saw into either the space between the jam and the door or between the doors in double doors and cut the bar
conventional forcible entry8
  • Special Circumstances (cont.)
    • tempered plate glass doors
      • commercial stores, light industry and institutional occupancies
      • heavy and extremely expensive
      • difficult to break glass
        • shatters into small cube-like pieces
      • resists heat
      • glass should be shattered at a bottom corner
        • use a tool with a pick or point
      • glass should be broken only as a last resort for access
        • through-the-lock method
through the lock
  • Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry
    • is the preferred method of entry for many commercial doors, residential security locks, padlocks and high-security doors
    • minimal amount of damage to the door
      • performed correctly
    • requires a good size-up of both the door and the lock mechanism
      • suitable for conventional forcible entry?
through the lock1
  • Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry (cont.)
    • commercial doors, the lock cylinder can actually be unscrewed from the door
      • common on storefront doors
      • protected by a collar or shield?
    • operating the lock as though you had the key to the lock
      • use a key tool to operate the lock mechanism once the cylinder is removed
through the lock2
  • Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry (cont.)
    • requires patience and practice
    • some examples of through-the-lock tools
      • K-tool
      • J-tool
      • shove knife
through the lock3
  • K-Tool
    • useful in pulling all types of lock cylinders
      • rim, mortise or tubular
    • used with a Halligan-type bar
    • K-tool forced behind ring and face of cylinder until wedging blades bite into cylinder
    • metal loop acts as fulcrum for leverage
      • holds adz end of the prying tool
    • once cylinder is removed, key tool can be used
through the lock4
  • A-Tool
    • tool accomplishes same job as the K-tool
      • slightly more damage to the door
    • many locks are manufacture with collars or protective cone-shaped covers
      • prevent anyone from using a lock-pulling device
    • A-tool is a sharp notch with cutting edges machined into a prying tool
    • designed to cut behind the protective collar
through the lock5
  • J-Tool
    • is a wire-type device designed to fit through the space between double swinging doors equipped with panic hardware
    • can manipulate the panic bar
      • operate with minimal pressure exerted
through the lock6
  • Shove Knife
    • flat steel tool, is one of the oldest burglar tools
    • rapid access to outward swinging latch-type doors
  • Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks
    • padlocks
      • portable locking device that are used to secure a door, window, gates, etc..
    • range from the very simple, easily broken type to the high security, virtually impenetrable type
    • conventional forcible entry tools can be used
      • additional tools are available
        • duck-billed lock breaker
        • hammer-headed pick
        • locking pliers and chain
        • hockey puck lock breaker
        • bam-bam tool
  • Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks (cont.)
    • duck-billed lock breaker
      • is a wedge shaped tool that will widen and break the shackle of padlocks
        • like using the hook of a Halligan type bar
      • driven by a maul or flat head axe until the padlock break
  • Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks (cont.)
    • bam-bam tool
      • uses case-hardened screws driven into actual keyway lock mechanism of padlock
      • few hits with sliding hammer will pull lock tumbler out of padlock body
      • key tool or screwdriver can be inserted to trip lock mechanism
      • will not work on Master Locks, American Locks and other high quality locks
        • case-hardened retaining ring
  • Cutting Padlocks with Saws or Cutting Torches
    • may be quickest method of removing padlocks
    • high security padlocks designed with heel and toe shackles
      • will not pivot if only one side of shackle is cut
    • do not try to cut a loose padlock
      • fasten a set of locking pliers and chain to the lock body
  • Fences can be made of wood, masonry, woven wire or metal
    • may be topped with barbed wire or razor wire
    • may also be used to keep guard animals on the premises
  • Cutting metal fences with bolt cutters or removing wood boards are ways to gain access
  • Wire fences should be cut near posts
    • lessen the danger of injury from the whip coil of loosened wires
  • Using ladders to bridge fences, especially masonry fences, is another quick way of gaining access over a fence
  • SIZE-UP!
forcing windows
  • Forcible entry can take place through windows, though they are not the preferred entry point into a fire building
    • sometimes easier to force than doors
    • entry can be made to open a locked door from inside the structure
  • Size-up of windows is critical to a successful forced entry
forcing windows1
  • Breaking widow glass on the fireground presents a multitude of hazards to both firefighters and civilians
    • glass shards travel great distance from windows on upper floors
    • make movement for advancing hose teams or rescue crews difficult
    • may shower victims inside the structure
forcing windows2
  • Wire glass requires great effort to break and remove
    • wire prevents the glass from falling out of the frame
forcing windows3
  • Thermopane windows or triple-glaze windows can cost the owner a large sum of money
    • determine if the benefits of breaking the window outweigh the damage that will be caused or will breaking the window cause more damage than necessary
forcing windows4
  • Thermopane windows are more difficult to break
    • shard removal difficult and time-consuming
  • Windows come in a variety of types and sizes
    • basic windows include
      • double-hung (checkrail)
      • hinged (casement)
      • projected (factory)
      • awning or jalousie
    • also various high-security windows
      • Lexan
      • barred
      • screened
forcing windows5
  • Double-Hung (Checkrail) Windows
    • extremely popular window in building construction
    • manufactured in either wood, metal or vinyl clad
      • made up of two sashes
      • top and bottom sashes are fitted into window frame and operate by sliding up or down
    • newer double-hung windows, referred to as "replacement windows"
      • not only move up and down, but tip inward for cleaning
forcing windows6
  • Double-Hung (Checkrail) Windows (cont.)
    • may contain ordinary glass, Thermopane glass, wire glass, Plexiglas, acrylic plastic or Lexan plastic
    • secured by one or two thumb-operated locking devices located where the bottom of the top sash meets the top of the bottom sash
      • may also be more securely fastened by window bolts
    • replacement windows
      • two side-bolt type mechanisms located on each side of the sash
forcing windows7
  • Hinged (Casement) Windows
    • constructed of wood or metal
    • often called a "crank out window"
      • should not be confused with an awning or jalousie window
    • consists of two sashes mounted on side hinges that swing outward, away from the structure
      • window crank assembly
forcing windows8
  • Hinged (Casement) Windows (cont.)
    • locking devices vary from simple thumb-operated devices to latch-type mechanisms
    • can only be opened by operating the crank mechanism
    • extremely difficult to force
      • usually at least four locking device as well as two crank devices
    • very narrow and presents a more difficult entry
forcing windows9
  • Hinged (Casement) Windows (cont.)
    • if possible another means of entry should be sought
    • if not
      • break the lowest pane of glass and clean out the sharp edges
      • force or cut the screen in the same area
      • reach in and upward to unlock the latch
      • operate the cranks or leavers at the bottom
      • completely remove the screen and enter
forcing windows10
  • Projected (Factory) Windows
    • most often associated with factories, warehouses and other commercial and industrial locations
    • most often metal sashes with wire glass
    • most practical method of forcing is the same as that described for casement windows
    • metal frames and wire glass make it difficult to effectively accomplish rapid forcible entry
forcing windows11
  • Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.)
    • may have bars over the outside and inside to prevent entry
      • best method of forcible entry is to seek another entry point!
    • often cover a large area, but the window openings themselves are very small
    • function by pivoting at either the top or bottom
      • projected-in
      • projected-out
      • pivoted-projected
forcing windows12
  • Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.)
    • projected-in
      • bottom rail of the window swings into the occupancy toward the person who is opening it
      • top rail slides in a metal channel
    • projected-out
      • bottom rail of the window swings away from the building
      • top rail slides into a metal channel
forcing windows13
  • Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.)
    • pivoted-projected
      • usually operated by a push bar that is notched to hold the window in place
      • screens are seldom used
forcing windows14
  • Awning and Jalousie Windows
    • awning windows
      • consist of large sections of glass about 1 foot wide and as long as the window width
      • constructed with a metal or wood frame around the glass panel
forcing windows15
  • Awning and Jalousie Windows
    • jalousie windows
      • consist of small sections about 4 inches wide and as long as the window width
      • usually constructed without frames and the glass is heavy plate that has been ground to overlap when closed
forcing windows16
  • Awning and Jalousie Windows (cont.)
    • glass sections of both awning and jalousie windows are supported on each end by a metal operating mechanism
      • may be exposed or concealed
    • operating crank and gear housing are located at the bottom of the window
    • most the difficult of all types to force
forcing windows17
  • Lexan Windows
    • is 250 times stronger than safety glass
      • 30 times stronger than acrylic
    • classified as self-extinguishing
    • virtually impossible to break with conventional forcible entry tools
    • two recommended techniques
      • cut Lexan using rotary power saw with carbide-tipped medium toothed blade
      • discharge carbon dioxide extinguisher on Lexan, then immediately strike Lexan with point of a tool
forcing windows18
  • Barred or Screened Windows and Openings
    • building owners add metal bars or metal mesh screens over windows and sometimes door openings
    • may be permanently installed, hinged at the top or side or fitted into brackets and locked securely
    • forcing involves considerable time
forcing windows19
  • Barred or Screened Windows and Openings (cont.)
    • more permanent security measure is to install heavy metal bars in the masonry above and below the window
    • "burglar" bars vary in their types and construction
      • attached directly to the building
      • attached to the window frame
    • forcible entry is a difficult and time consuming task
forcing windows20
  • Barred or Screened Windows and Openings (cont.)
    • considerations for burglar bar
      • shear off the bolt heads for the mesh screen or bar assembly it they are visible and accessible
      • cut bar assembly or screen from the building using an oxyacetylene torch
breaching walls
  • Forcible entry situations may arise where it would be faster and more efficient to gain access through the wall of a structure rather than through a conventional opening
    • thorough knowledge of building construction and good size-up techniques
    • breaching load-bearing walls already weakened by fire can be a very dangerous task
    • walls conceal electrical wiring, plumbing and gas lines
breaching walls1
  • Plaster or Gypsum Partition Walls
    • interior walls may or may not be load bearing
    • gypsum wallboard and plaster are relatively easy to penetrate with forcible entry tools
      • select location of opening
      • check wall for electric wall plugs and switches
      • have a wide variety of forcible entry tools available
      • sound wall to locate studs
breaching walls2
  • Plaster or Gypsum Partition Walls (cont.)
    • cut along studs to make a large open
    • remove one stud, if possible, from center of breach to enlarge the opening
    • use breach to gain access to area and search to find the normal means of entry
breaching walls3
  • Brick or Concrete Block Walls
    • can be the toughest type to breach
    • battering ram may be used to breaching
      • with handles and hand guards
      • one end is jagged for breaking brick and stone and the other end is rounded and smooth for battering walls and doors
      • requires two to four firefighters to use
breaching walls4
  • Brick or Concrete Block Walls (cont.)
    • power tools such as air chisels, hydraulic spreaders and rotary rescue saws
      • prove to be the best methods for breaching
breaching walls5
  • Metal Walls
    • usually fastened to studs by nails, rivets, bolts, screws or other fasteners
    • metal cutting power saw is normally the best tool to use
    • metal should be cut along the studding
      • provide stability for the saw
      • ease of repair
    • if no studs can be located, may bear the entire load of the structure
      • cut a hole in the wall in the shape of a triangle
      • distributes the walls load more evenly
breaching floors
  • Wood Floors
    • wood joists usually spaced a maximum of 16 inches
    • sub-floor consisting of either 1 inch boards or 4 foot by 8 foot sheets of plywood is first laid over the joists
    • finish flooring is laid last
      • linoleum
      • tile
      • hardwood
      • carpeting
breaching floors1
  • Wood Floors (cont.)
    • plywood sub-flooring is generally laid at right angles to the joist
    • carpets and rungs should be removed or rolled to one side before a floor is cut
breaching floors2
  • Concrete / Reinforced Concrete Floors
    • Extremely difficult to force
    • Opening them should be bypassed if possible
      • Most feasible means is to use a compressed air or electric jack hammer
      • Concrete cutting blades are available for most portable power saws