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A hydrocarbon is a compound that consists of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) only. WRONG ANSWER!!! TRY AGAIN. WRONG ANSWER!!! TRY AGAIN. WRONG ANSWER!!! TRY AGAIN. READ IT !!!. CARBON COMPOUND (ALCOHOLS). PRESENTED BY : NURHANISAH ZULKIFLI NORASHIKIN MD RODZI

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carbon compound alcohols

CARBON COMPOUND (ALCOHOLS)

PRESENTED BY :

NURHANISAH ZULKIFLI

NORASHIKIN MD RODZI

JUHANIS MOHAMED ZAHARI

slide10

Experiment

Quiz

Elements in alcohols

Effects of alcohols on health

ALCOHOL

Examples of alcohols

Uses of alcohols

General Formula

Characteristic

slide11

ALCOHOLS

An alcohol is an compound. It contains of 3 elements that is

and

organic

carbon

hydrogen

oxygen

slide12

Is Alcohols a hydrocarbon?? why??

  • No.
  • Because elements in alcohols contain an oxygen.
slide15

Methanol

Ethanoic acid

Methyl ethanoate

Ethanol

Butanoic acid

Ethyl butanoate

Methanoic acid

Ethanol

Ethyl methanoate

Ethanol

Propanoic acid

Ethyl propanoate

slide16

CnH2n+1OH

  • General formula for alcohol:
  • n is positive integer, n = 1,2,3……
  • The names of alcohols end with ‘-ol’. Examples ethanol.
slide17

Process of producing alcohol

  • Ethanol is produced through fermentation.
  • By action of yeast, sugars or starch are converted into ethanol.
slide18
The fermentation of sugar using yeast is optimum at 37°C.
  • If it get too hot, the enzyme will be destroyed.
  • But if the temperature is too low, the yeast become inactive.
glucose
Glucose

Yeast contains an enzyme, zymase that helps to break down sugar to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.

yeast

Ethanol + Carbon dioxide

(Zymase enzyme)

C6H12O6

2C2H5OH + 2CO2

slide20

Characteristics of alcohols

Alcohol is a colourless volatile liquid

with a sweet smell.

  • miscible in water.
    • Both the boiling point and melting point increase as the number of carbon atoms in its molecule increase (get larger).
    • The miscibility of alcohol in water decreases as molecules get larger.
slide21
Alcohol burns easily with a clear blue flame in a plentiful supply of air to produce carbon dioxide and water only.

Alcohol + oxygen

Carbon dioxide + water

esterification
Esterification
  • Reaction of an alcohol with an organic acid

catalyzed by little concentrated sulphuric

acid to produce an ester.

Concentrated sulphuric acid

Ester

+

Water

Alcohol + organic acid

slide23

Example :

Concentrated sulphuric acid

Ethanol + ethanoic acid

Ethyl ethanoate + water

H2SO4

C2H5OH + CH3COOH

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

slide24

SOLVENTS

COSMETICS

USES OF ALCOHOL

MEDICINES

FUELS

solvents
SOLVENTS
  • Alcohols are good solvents for dissolving organic compound which are insoluble in water.
  • Ethanol : Dissolve shellac, varnishes, perfumes and dyes.
  • Methylated spirit : Solvent for varnishes and paints.
cosmetics
COSMETICS
  • Aftershave lotion
  • Cleanser
  • Perfumes
medicines
MEDICINES
  • Mild antiseptic for cleaning injured skin and prevents infections.
  • Sterilise the skin before giving an injection.
  • Dissolve medicines which are insoluble in water.
fuels
FUELS
  • 2CH3OH(l)+3O2(g) 2CO2(g)+4H2O(l)

+heat energy

  • Heat energy released can be used to run motor vehicles.
effects
EFFECTS …
  • Health Problem
  • Social Problem
  • Psychiatric Problem
health problem
HEALTH PROBLEM
  • Liver diseases such as hepatitis
  • Obesity
  • Heart diseases
  • High blood pressure
social problem
SOCIAL PROBLEM
  • Drinking too much alcohol cause a person to get drunk.
  • Increased crime rates. (fights,thefts)
  • Increased accident rates.
psychiatric problem
PSYCHIATRIC PROBLEM
  • Alcohol acts as a depressant.
  • Drinking too much alcohol

cause a person to be anxious.

experiment 4 2
EXPERIMENT 4.2

Aim : To study the properties of alcohol.

Problem : What are the physical and chemical properties of alcohol.

Hypothesis : Alcohol can be identified by their physical and chemical properties.

slide42

QUIZ

Question 1

Question 2

Question 3

slide43

1. WHICH ONE IS THE GENERAL

FORMULA FOR ALCOHOL??

  • A) CnH2n+1OH
  • B) C2nHn+1OH
  • C) C2n+1HnOH
slide44

2. ALL THE FOLLOWING IS THE

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL, EXCEPT…….

  • A) HEALTH PROBLEM
  • B) SOCIAL PROBLEM
  • C) FINANCIAL PROBLEM
slide45

3. WHAT IS ELEMANT IN ALCOHOL?

  • A) CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN
  • B) HYDROCARBON, OXYGEN, CARBON