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Understanding strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP). (SIS program, Cambridge, Aug.2007) Edward Shuryak Stony Brook. The emerging theory of sQGP. Quantum mechanics. Stronly coupled cold trapped atoms. Manybody theory. Lattice simulations. sQGP. Quasiparticles Potentials
of EQP and MQP
Qs: Why do we have strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) at RHIC? Is it related to deconfinement (T=(1-1.5)Tc) or quasi-conformal behaviour at $T>1.5Tc? What is the role of magnetic objects? Can one explain RHIC results using AdS/CFT? A picture is emerging…
QCD vacuum is
Columbus believed if he goes west he should eventually come to India
But something else was on the way…
We believed if we increase the energy density, we should eventually get weakly interacting QGP. But something else was found on the way, sQGP
How does the system respond to initial spatial anisotropy?
Dense or dilute?
If dense, thermalization?
If thermalized, EoS?
The coolest thing on Earth, T=10 nK or 10^(-12) eV can actually produce a Micro-Bang ! (O’Hara et al, Duke )
Elliptic flow with ultracold trapped Li6 atoms, a=> infinity regime
The system is extremely dilute, but can be put into a hydro regime, with an elliptic flow, if it is specially tuned into a strong coupling regime via the so called Feshbach resonance
Similar mechanism was proposed (Zahed and myself) for QGP, in which a pair of quasiparticles is in resonance with their bound state at the “zero binding lines”
2001-2005: hydro describes radial and elliptic flows for all secondaries , pt<2GeV, centralities, rapidities, A (Cu,Au)… Experimentalists were very sceptical but wereconvinced and ``near-perfect liquid” is now official, =>AIP declared this to be discovery #1 of 2005 in physicsv_2=<cos(2 phi)>
red lines are for ES+Lauret+Teaney done before RHIC data, never changed or fitted, describes SPS data as well! It does so because of the correct hadronic matter /freezout via (RQMD)
Heavy quark quenching as strong as for light gluon-q jets!
Radiative energy loss only fails to reproduce v2HF.
Heavy quark elliptic flow: v2HF(pt<2GeV) is about the same as for all hadrons!
Small relaxation time t or diffusion coefficient DHQinferred for charm.
a ``diffuson” a sound
Note: it is only projection of a cone on phi
Note 2: more
recent data from
STAR find also a minimum in
180 degr., with
Consistent with background
The most peripheral bin, here no matter
what people dream about for LHC
experments -- a black hole formation --
does happen, in each and every RHIC AuAu event =>
thermalization, All info is lost except the overall entropy=area of newly formed b.h.horizon
the red graviton path (on which it is absorbed) does
Both viscosity and entropy are proportional to b.h. horizon, thus such a simple asnwer
One quark (fisherman) is
In our world,
The other (fish) in
String connects them and conduct waves in one direction through the black hole
Up- from Gubser et al
Both groups made
Description of the
conical flow from
AdS/CFT=> not much
(Nastase 03, Sin,ES and Zahed 04,Janik-Peschanski 05…)
If colliding objects made of heavy quarks
Now linearized version in progress
(field from a static Maldacena string recently done Lin,ES arXiv:0707.3135, T00 ->1/r7 )
Electrons have the same charge -e all the time,
but our quasiparticles (quarks, gluons,…) have colors
which is changing in time
Fraction of quasiparticles are magnetically
Charged (monopoles and dyons) which
fight each other
At T<Tc they somehow (?) make a
Berlin group - Ilgenfritz et al
Red,blue and green U(1) fields
3 dyons with corresp.
Field strengths, SU(3),
Each (1,-1,0) charges
At T=0 magnetic
Is about 2 GeV
(de Forcrand et al)
(a glueball mass)
Other data (Karsch et al) better show how Me
Vanishes at Tc
Dirac condition (old QED-type units e^2=alpha, deliberately no Nc yet)
<- n=2 adjoint
Thus at the e=g line
Near deconfinement line g->0 in IR
(Landau’s U(1) asymptotic freedom)
=> e-strong-coupling because g in weak!
Why is this diagram better? =>
There are e-flux tubes in allblue region, not only in the confined phase! In fact, they are maximally enhanced at Tc
a negative U
What object is that?
a negative U
What object is that?
where classical electrons rotate around it
Red trajectory A => nu=0
(velocity at large r directed to the center)
Black one B => m=0 (which goes through
the center because no m^2/r^2 barrier)
(Presumably gluons-in-the-tube correspond to AdS/CFT
Minahan string solutions and are also dual
to monopoles-in-the-tube solutions recently
Worked out by Tong et al,Shifman et al)
We calculated ``instantons” for particles jumping paths in a liquid and
solid He4 incuding realistic atomic potentials and understood 2 known effects:
Why Tc grows with repulsive interaction<= because a jump proceeds faster under the barrier
(ii) no supersolid He => density too large and action above critical
Marco is doing Path Integral simulations with permutations numerically, to refine conditions when BEC transitions take place
For charged Bose gas (monopoles) the action for the jump can be calculated similarly, but relativistically; jumps in space d and in time
∆S=M sqrt(d2+(1/Tc)2)+ ∆S(interaction) = Sc =1.65-1.89
(first value from Einstein ideal gas, second from liquid He)
provides the monopole mass M at Tc
M Tc approx 1.5 =>
M as low as 300 MeV
1 pair for SU(2), 3 for SU(3), etc. known as
Darboux variables. We did SU(2) color => Q is a unit
vector on O(3)
With a non-Abelian color => Wong eqn
Gas, liquid solid
Note that Lorentz force is O(v)!
and escape trajectories
for a monopole, all different in initial condition by 1/1000 only!
Dual to Budker’s
MD simulation for plasma with monopoles (Liao,ES hep-ph/0611131)monopole admixture M50=50% etcagain diffusion decreases indefinitely, viscosity does not
It matters: 50-50 mixture
makes the best liquid, as it
creates ``maximal confusion”
short transport summarylog(inverse viscosity s/eta)- vs. log(inverse heavy q diffusion const D*2piT) (avoids messy discussion of couplings)
->Stronger coupled ->
Most perfect liquid
MD results, with specified
Weak coupling end =>
(Perturbative results shown here)
Both related to mean free path
50-50% E/M is the most ideal liquid
This is the region where transition from magnetic to electric dominance happen
at T<1.4 Tc still Lots of magnetic objects =>
RHIC data on transport (eta,D), ADS/CFT and classical MD all qualitatively agree !
Are these two pictures related?Conclusions
Bielefeld-BNL lattice group: Karsch et al
(Boltzmann statistics is good enough)