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Overview and Introduction to RAPID Lessons and Tools. John Young. 6 lessons from our work. Commission research. Analyse the results. Choose the best option. Establish the policy. Implement the policy. Evaluation. Policy processes are not... . Identify the problem. Cabinet. Donors.

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policy processes are not

Commission research

Analyse the results

Choose the best option

Establish the policy

Implement the policy

Evaluation

Policy processes are not...

Identify the problem

policy processes are more like

Cabinet

Donors

Policy Formulation

Parliament

Agenda

Setting

Decision

Making

Civil Society

Ministries

Monitoring and Evaluation

Policy Implementation

Private Sector

Policy processes are more like ...
policy and complexity
Policy and complexity
  • Interconnected
  • Feedback
  • Emergence
  • Nonlinearity
  • Sensitivity
  • Changing
  • Edge of chaos
  • Adaptive agents
  • Self-organising
  • Co-evolution
the gap between research and policy
The gap betweenresearch and policy

gap

Research

Policy

Bridge

no gap between research and policy
No gap between research and policy

Crowded

Technocratic networks

Universities

Political parties

Research

NGOs

Ideological think tanks

Think tanks

Regulatory bodies

Internal think tanks

Policy

UN Think tanks

Lobbies

Executive

Public think tanks

corporations

Map

policy makers are
Speed

Superficiality

Spin

Secrecy

Scientific Ignorance

Policy makers are…

…practically incapable of using evidence because of the 5 Ss…

Vincent Cable – Lib. Democrat MP & Shadow Minister of Finance

More at: www.odi.org.uk/RAPID/Meetings/Evidence

there are many factors

Experience & Expertise

Pragmatics & Contingencies

Judgement

Lobbyists & Pressure Groups

Evidence

Resources

Values and Policy Context

Habits & Tradition

There are many factors

Source: Phil Davies Impact to Insight Meeting, ODI, 2005

10

different notions of evidence

Policy Makers

Researchers

  • ‘Scientific’ (Context free)
  • Proven empirically
  • Theoretically driven
  • As long as it takes
  • Caveats and qualifications
  • Colloquial (Contextual)
  • Anything that seems reasonable
  • Policy relevant
  • Timely
  • Clear Message
Different notionsof evidence

Source: Phil Davies Impact to Insight Meeting, ODI, 2005

health care in tanzania
Health Care in Tanzania

“The results of household disease surveys informed processes of health service reform which contributed to a 43 and 46 per cent reduction in infant mortality between 2000 and 2003 in two districts in rural Tanzania.”

TEHIP Project, Tanzania: www.idrc.ca/tehip

some ie examples
Some IE Examples
  • Progresa-Oportunidades (2004)
    • IFPRI – Mexican Government
    • Direct impact on programme
    • Popularised RCTs
  • Deworming in Kenya (2004)
    • International Child Support Africa + Kenyan Government
    • JPAL
  • Microcredit in Bangladesh (2008)
    • Highly contested
    • Political controversy re Microcredit
an analytical framework

Thepolitical context – political and economic structures and processes, culture, institutional pressures, incremental vs radical change etc.

Theevidence– credibility, the degree it challenges received wisdom, research approaches and methodology, simplicity of the message, how it is packaged etc

Thelinksbetween policy

and research communities – networks, relationships, power, trust, knowledge etc.

An analytical framework

External Influences

Socio-economic and cultural influences,

donor policies etc

a practical framework
A practical framework

political context

External Influences

Politics and Policymaking

Campaigning, Lobbying

Policy analysis, & research

Media,

Advocacy, Networking

Research, learning & thinking

Scientific information exchange & validation

evidence

links

policy and social entrepreneurs
Policy and social entrepreneurs

Storyteller

Networker

Researcher

Fixer

Engineer

to maximise impact you need to
To maximise impact you need to:
  • focus more on policy
  • establish different incentives
  • establish different systems
  • spend more on communications
  • engage with different actors
  • produce different products
  • be ready to seize unexpected policy opportunities and move very fast
different time different approaches
Different time, different approaches

Media strategy

Online communications

Develop a network or partnership

Academic research communications

Policy advocacy coalition

More research

different roles and functions
Different roles and functions

Oxbridge

The Media

Applied research centers in Universities

Internal think tanks, ideological centers, interest groups, NGOs, lobbies

“Independent Think tanks”

Consultancies

Chief scientific advisors, Academic/Opinion leaders

Political parties

.

types of policy change
Types of policy change

Procedural changes

the steps
The steps

Start by defining your policy objectives – constantly review them during the process

the rapid framework

The political context– political and economic structures and processes, culture, institutional pressures, incremental vs radical change etc.

The evidence – credibility, the degree it challenges received wisdom, research approaches and methodology, simplicity of the message, how it is packaged etc

The links between policy

and research communities – networks, relationships, power, competing discourses, trust, knowledge etc.

The RAPID Framework

External Influences

Socio-economic and cultural influences,

donor policies etc

the steps1
The steps

Start by defining your policy objectives – constantly review them during the process

identifying audiences
Identifying audiences

AIIM Matrix

  • Identify all stakeholders
  • Map them onto the alignment / interest matrix
  • Identify who has power
  • Identify who you can influence

High

Develop enthusiasm to address topic

Learn in partnership

General level of alignment

Develop awareness and enthusiasm

Challenge existing beliefs

Low

Interest in specific topic

Low

High

the steps2
The steps

Start by defining your policy objectives – constantly review them during the process

progress markers
Progress Markers
  • Move from initial to more profound changes in behaviour
  • Show transformation in a single boundary partner
  • More informative than a single indicator
outcome mapping

OUTCOME MAPPING:Building Learning and Reflection into Development ProgramsSarah Earl, Fred Carden, and Terry Smutylo

http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-9330-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

Outcome Mapping
the steps3
The steps

Start by defining your policy objectives – constantly review them during the process

force field analysis
Force Field Analysis

Your influence on the force

Your influence on the force

Negative forces

Positive forces

MEF

Funds

Plan:

Minister of Trade puts forward pro-poor trade and complementary policy programme to the cabinet by April 2008

5

4

4

5*

Time

CSOs

1

5

1

3

?

Public demand

?

2

2

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

assessing internal capacity
Assessing internal capacity

Start by defining your policy objectives – constantly review them during the process

swot analysis
What type of policy influencing skills and capacities do we have?

In what areas have our staff used them more effectively?

Who are our strongest allies?

When have they worked with us?

Are there any windows of opportunity?

What can affect our ability to influence policy?

SWOT Analysis
monitoring and evaluating
Monitoring and Evaluating

Start by defining your policy objectives – constantly review them during the process

stories
Stories

Stories of change

1. Situation

2. A change or challenge

3. Action

4. Result

5. Lesson

after action review
After Action Review

An after action review asks 4

simple questions:

  • What was supposed to happen?
  • What actually happened?
  • Why was there a difference?
  • What can we learn from it?

15 minute team debrief, conducted in a “rank-free” environment.

other tools
Other tools
  • AIIM
  • Stakeholder analysis
  • Influence Mapping
  • Social Network Analysis
  • Force Field Analysis
    • RAPID Framework
  • Drivers of Change
  • Power Analysis
  • SWOT
  • Influence Mapping
  • Force Field Analysis

Start by defining your policy objectives – constantly review them during the process

  • Progress Markers
  • Opportunities and Threats timeline
  • Policy Objectives
  • AIIM
  • Force Field Analysis
  • Log Frame (flexible)
  • Outcome Mapping
  • Journals or impact logs
  • Internal monitoring tools
  • Force Field Analysis
  • Policy entrepreneur questionnaire
  • SWOT
  • Internal performance frameworks
  • Publications, public relations
  • Media and events
  • Negotiation and advice
  • Develop a network or coalition
  • Research
resources
Resources
  • Bridging Research and Policy in International Development. An analytical and practical framework. ODI/RAPID Briefing Paper 1. 2004 - http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=159&title=bridging-research-policy-international-development-analytical-practical-framework
  • Helping researchers become policy entrepreneurs. How to develop engagement strategies for evidence-based policy-making. John Young and Enrique Mendizabal. ODI Briefing Paper 53. 2009 - http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=1127&title=become-policy-entrepreneur-roma
  • 3ie Clinic IE Case Studies - ?????
  • Tools for Policy Impact: A Handbook for Researchers, ODI Toolkits, September 2004 - http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=156&title=tools-policy-impact-handbook-esearchers
  • Tools for Knowledge and Learning: A Guide for Development and Humanitarian Organisations ODI Toolkits, June 2006 - http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=153&title=tools-knowledge-learning-guide-development-humanitarian-organisations
  • Problem-driven governance and political economy analysis, Good Practice Framework, Verena Fritz, Kai Kaiser, Brian Levy, World Bank 2009 - http://www.odi.org.uk/events/docs/3791.pdf
  • DFID Political Economy Analysis How To Note – July 2009 - http://www.odi.org.uk/events/docs/3797.pdf
  • Outcome Mapping: Building Learning and Reflection into Development Programs. Sarah Earl, Fred Carden, and Terry SmutyloIDRC http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Resources/Publications/Pages/IDRCBookDetails.aspx?PublicationID=121
  • Knowledge to Policy. Making the Most of Development Research. Fred Carden. IDRC 2009. http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Resources/Publications/Pages/IDRCBookDetails.aspx?PublicationID=70
  • 3ie/ODI Policy Impact Toolkit - http://policyimpacttoolkit.squarespace.com/