Today the earth is changing • Speed of environmental changes has increased dramatically over the past 20 years • We have seen an increase in fire risk to the boreal forest, drought, flooding and severe storms. • Tropical disease has migrated pole ward. And a huge increase in skin cancer. • The natural environment has given way to human use as we over populate the planet.
Canada’s Arctic • Sea ice is shrinking: • Leading to the potential extinction of polar bears • Low ice flow prevents them from hunting the seals • Arctic communities have sinking shorelines • Other nations are going after previously inaccessible resources • United States, Russia, Denmark and Norway want to tap the rich oil and natural gas deposits • Increased shipping in the Northwest passage • Counties are questioning our claim to sovereignty in the arctic.
Growth and sustainability • Feeding the population • 70% of water is used in agriculture • Deforestation • Cleared for farmland • Cities expanding on previous farmland • Energy source • Genetically modified food • Garbage • Landfills are overflowing • Pollution is sinking in to ground water
Water Basics • People • Require 1.8l of water a day • State of the worlds water: • 2.5% of worlds water is fresh of that 70% is in ice caps and glaciers. 0.3% is in lakes and rivers the rest is in ground water • Drainage basins • (watersheds) are areas that when water falls on the ground it will all move into the same river system. • Water table • is the level at which a person must dig down to reach the water. Wells take ground water and cause the water table to lower and well to dry up.
Aquifers • are areas of porous material that are capable of supplying large amounts of ground water normally has flowing water under some pressure • Springs & artesian wells • are created if there is enough pressure behind the aquifer to push water to the surface with out using a pump.
Water use today: • Industry • slowly being reduced due to new technology • Agriculture • by far the largest user of water for irrigation. • Domestic • amounts continue to rise and put huge strain on water supply in areas that are heavily populated.
Conserving our water • Domestic conservation will reduce the load on water in populated areas • with new low flow fixtures, night time watering of plants, and common respect for water. • Raise the cost of water will reduce the waist of companies and businesses. • Save & reuse more drain water.
Build dams: • although they have huge environmental problems like: loss of habitat, pollution from decaying material or contamination for material in the ground. Destruction of fish hatching areas. They do increase recreational opportunities & limit flooding.
Build desalinization plants: • currently cost is 10times that of traditional water supply so it is not practical for most areas.
Water PollutionDegradation of water quality due to biological chemical and physical criteria. • Types of H2O pollution: • Oxygen demanding waste (sewer and dead waste)
Pathogenic Organisms: (disease causing) micro organisms. Fecal coli form bacteria. • Nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) Cause algae to grow.
Oil Exxon Valdez • Toxic substances: heavy metals, & hazardous chemicals
Sediments: reduces quality of H2O • Thermal pollution: water coolant
NONPOINT SOURCES Rural homes Cropland Urban streets Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES Suburban development Factory Wastewater treatment plant Point and Nonpoint Sources
Treatment of pollution: • Buffer zones around rivers lakes and water sheds. • Sewage treatment facilities for sewage and city runoff. • Government regulations on shipping and manufacturing. • Education of public: waste disposal and product use.