Lesson Four Functional Grammar
(meta) functions • Ideational • Interpersonal • Textual
Ideational Function • processes, • participants • circumstances • John kissed Mary in the cinema. • “Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few”
Interpersonal Function • Speaker’s intentions or expectations • Relations between speaker and hearer • Mood selection – indicative, interrogative, imperative
Passato Prossimo • Carola: Beh… mi ha chiamato per chiedermi cosa facevo questo weekend, però gli ho detto che venivo qua. • Claudia: Ma chiamalo! • Carola: Adesso? Ma sono le due! • Claudia Vabbé domani. Però domani lo chiami! • Carola: Vabbé
Present Perfect • Carola: Well… he called to ask me what I was doing this weekend, but I had to tell him I was coming here.Claudia: So call him now! • Carola: Now? It’s two in the morning! • Claudia Alright tomorrow. But call him tomorrow. • Carola: Alright.
Textual Function • Makes language cohesive and coherent • links • reference • etc. Theme and Rheme Given information and New information
Cohesion • Reference • Substitution • Ellipsis • Conjunction • Lexical cohesion
Reference Anaphoric reference James Bond came into the room and the woman shot him. Cataphoric reference He came into the room and said “The name is Bond, James Bond.”
Substitution • for nouns – one, ones • I’ll have the big one, You can have the little ones. • for verbs – do • I like Mars bars. So do I. • John speaks Italian and so does Mary. • for clauses – so, not, modality (perhaps) • Is this the end of the lesson? I hope so. • Will it rain? Maybe.
Ellipsis • Substitution by zero Are you tired? Yes, I am. Did you vote Labour? Yes.
Conjunction And • Fish and chips But • I tried but I failed. Therefore I think, therefore I am. etc.
Lexical cohesion • Repetition • Synonymy • Hyponymy • Metaphor/Simile • Collocation • Semantic field (chains) • Figures of speech
Dancing Girls (M. Attwood) The first sign of the new man was the knock on the door. It was the landlady, knocking not at Ann’s door, as she’d thought, but on the other door, the one east of the bathroom. Knock, knock, knock; then a pause, soft footsteps, the sound of unlocking. Ann, who had been reading a book on canals, put it down and lit herself a cigarette. It wasn’t that she tried to overhear: in the house you couldn’t help it.
Dancing Girls (cohesion) Anaphoric reference: she, the one, who,it Cataphoric reference: It Repetition: knock, door Semantic field via chains: landlady –door- unlocking-house; house-bathroom-door Collocation: knock - door
Theme and Rheme Mary kicked John in the cinema. John was kicked by Mary in the cinema. In the cinema Mary kicked John.
Given & New Information • Paris was lively in those days. The city never slept. The city = Given information … never slept = New information