ED573 History of High-Stakes Standardized Assessment. Many Educators do not like high-stakes standardized test, but do many of teachers and administrators know how they came into existence? . ISSLC . Standard 6
Many Educators do not like high-stakes standardized test, but do many of teachers and administrators know how they came into existence?
It started in 1964 with the Economic Opportunity Act (EOA).
The EOA was part of President Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty and the development of a Great Society*.
*Elimination of poverty and racial injustice
Increase spending on: Education, Medical Care, Urban Problems, and Transportation
The EOA brought about the Head Start Program, which was followed by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965.
The ESEA created the Title I and Follow Throughprograms.
As the 1970s were drawing to a close and the 1980s began…
The United States found itself in an economy that had integrated multinational corporations.
The products of these corporations could be designed in one country and produced in another, and then sold in a third.
Low-skill workers in the US were in deep and permanent trouble
The change in the economy required rapid change in schools, specifically in increasing student performance.
1986 Carnegie Report, A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century, which called for a restructuring of America’s schools based on standards
In 1989, first President Bush called for an education summit to which the governors responded.
A movement toward standards-based education began shortly after the educational summit in the 1990s.
The standards movement, also has origins in national education initiatives, such as America 2000 (of 1991) and its predecessor, Goals 2000.
Both are attributed to research on:
The Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994 amended the ESEA by extending requirements to all students.
The 1994 legislation required all states to have standards of academic achievement; to assess student at three stages (grades 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12) to determine if they were meeting the standards.
By 2000, 49 states plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had content standards in at least three subject areas, according to the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
All states except Nebraska and Iowa had mandated testing in place
The federal education legislation was passed in the early days of 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
This was the beginning of the “Era of Accountability”
Are they Really Ready to Work,
surveyed four hundred top employers in the United States revealed over 40% of employers of employers respondents rated the level of preparedness of the high school graduates for entry-level jobs as deficient
(Conference Board, 2006)
The Governor’s Commission on College and Career Success (2006), noted “the academic distinction which was once held between students going to post-secondary education and those entering directly into the workforce are no longer useful” (p. 5)
A 2009 PISA report, which was produced through research conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) shows the United States is significantly below the OECD average in mathematics
To measure the implementation of the common core standards USDOE has set aside $350 million to develop and implement the tests aligned to the voluntary national standards.
Once again, policymakers, educators, and the general public are looking to student assessment as a catalyst for educational reform, based on its ability to leverage instructional improvement and to hold schools accountable for their results
The PSSA, according to the report, Relationship Among Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Scores, University Proficiency Exams, and College Course Graduation in English and Mathematics,completed for the PDE indicates the PSSA is a valid predictor of a student’s readiness to succeed in current college-level work or entry-level jobs
Sinclair and Thacker (2005)
According to the Governor’s Commission on College and Career Success (2006), students performing at proficient or above on the 11th grade PSSA, have a 90% chance of placing directly into college-level courses with no need for remediation
According to the National Center for Educational Statistics (2000), approximately 28% of all students entering college need some type of remediation.
In addition, only 37% make it to their sophomore year in college and less than one-third graduate on time and according to
Rising to the Challenge (2005) approximately 30-40% of our high school graduates are not ready for their next step in life.
Unfortunately, according to the American Diploma Network (2011), more than half of the high school students are not demonstrating proficiency in mathematics and 2 in 5 are below the standard in Reading.
Graduation Competency Assessment (GCA). The action plan for the GCA was developed by the American Diploma Project (ADP) between 2005 and 2008.
According to Achieve (2010), the ADP is a network of “Governors, state superintendents of education, business executives and college leaders are working to bring value to the high school diploma.
The ADP network includes 35 states and together account for 85 percent of the students in public schools.
They want GCAs…
This discrepancy initiated a study of Pennsylvania school districts’ graduation assessments from 418 school districts which was conducted in 2009 at Penn State’s College of Education.
The Penn State study measured whether the assessments, provided by educators in public schools, measure 11th grade reading and math skills. The study also measured the integrity of the high school assessments by analyzing how securely the tests are conducted.
The results of the study reported 99 out of the 500 school districts adequately measured the 11th grade skills for Reading and only 19 schools administer the assessment in a secure manner.
The mathematics results reported 314 school districts provided adequate measures of 11th grade skills, and only 31 of the 314 districts are using the assessment appropriately to make decisions on the awarding of a diploma.
The two-step review process concluded 18 districts have appropriate assessments in Reading and math and use the assessments consistently in awarding high school diplomas.
The proposed GCAs were opposed by the Pennsylvania School Boards Association (PSBA). The GCA was also subject to a moratorium by the General Assembly under Act 61 of 2008.
During that time the GCA proposal was replaced by the Keystone Exams.
Keystone Exams are an end-of-course examination.
What could be the motivation to move from a grade-level assessment (PSSA) to an end-of-course exam?
Article #2 The move-on-when-ready system
Is it possible we could have students meet the criteria for graduation (demonstrate that they are college and career ready) in their sophomore or junior year?
If so, what would our high schools look like in the future?
What if we taught less honors courses and stopped teaching AP and IB courses to focus on getting only the students who need the extra assistance to become college and career ready?
Article #3 Allentown School District