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Estonia. Size: 45 227 km² (size of Netherlands) Population: 1,4 million Neighbours: Russia, Latvia, via Baltic Sea - Finland and Sweden History: independent country since 1991 (after “singing revolution”). Estonia. Type of state: Parliamentary democracy

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estonia
Estonia
  • Size: 45 227 km² (size of Netherlands)
  • Population: 1,4 million
  • Neighbours: Russia, Latvia, via Baltic Sea - Finland and Sweden
  • History: independent country since 1991 (after “singing revolution”)
estonia1
Estonia
  • Type of state: Parliamentary democracy
  • President: Arnold Rüütel since 2001
  • Government: coalition of centre right (Res Publica), liberal centre (Government Reform Party) and left wind rural party (People’s Union)
  • Legislature: Single chamber Parliament of 101 members, last election March 2003
estonia2
Estonia

Relations with EU :

  • 1995 – Europe Agreement (Association Agreement)
  • 16 September 2003 – Accession referendum – 66,84 % in favour (turnout 64%)
estonia3
Estonia

Specific features:

- most advanced applicant country regarding information technology,

- 20% of the population is either stateless or possess different citizenship than Estonian.

- Ethnic status is very mixed – only 67,9% of Estonians, 25,6% of Russians and the rest consists of various others (Finns, Belorussians, Ukrainians).

slovenia
Slovenia
  • Size: 20 000 km² (like Wales or Israel)
  • Population: 2 million
  • Neighbours: Austria, Italy, Croatia, Hungary
  • History: Independence from Yugoslavia since June 1991 (after ten-day war with Yugoslav People’s Army)
slovenia1
Slovenia
  • Type of state: Parliamentary democracy
  • President: Janez Dmovšek since 2002
  • Government: Liberal Democrats (Prime Minister Anton Rop)
  • Legislature: 90-member State Assembly and 40-member State Council
slovenia2
Slovenia

Relations with EU:

  • 1993 – Co-operation Agreement
  • 1996 – Association Agreement
  • 23rd of March 2003 –

Referendum on EU Accession

90 % in favour, (turnout 60%)

slovenia3
Slovenia

Specific features:

  • the only EU candidate country from former Yugoslavia
  • GDP per capita higher than Greece, close to Portugal (16,990 Є)
  • lower unemployment than France or Germany
  • tourism is a major industry
hungary
Hungary
  • Size: 93,036 km²
  • Population: 10,2 million
  • Neighbours: Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Former Yugoslavia, Croatia, Slovenia
  • History: 1956 – revolution against communist regime ; 1990 – first free parliamentary elections, 1991 – leave of Soviet soldiers
hungary1
Hungary
  • Type of state: Republic, Parliamentary democracy
  • President: Ferenc Madl, since August 2000
  • Government: left-liberal coalition of the Hungarian Socialist Party and the Alliance of Free Democrats
  • Legislature: unicameral system – Parliament of 386 members
hungary2
Hungary

Relations with EU:

  • 1991 – Association Agreement with EC
  • 12th April 2003 – referendum on accession – 83,76% in favour (turnout 45,6%)
hungary3
Hungary

Specific features:

  • 13 officially recognised minorities (German, Gypsies, Croats, Slovacs, Romanians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Polish, Armenian, Rutherns, Serbs, Ukrainian)
  • one of the lowest unemployment rate in candidate countries (5,8%)
hungary4
Hungary

Position on Constitution

  • Every Member State should have one Commissioner
  • The rotating presidency principle of the Council should be maintained
  • Enhanced cooperation allowed if more than half of Member States involved
  • A paragraph on the rights of national and ethnic minorities should be included in the Preamble of Constitution or in the Charter of Human Rights
poland
Poland
  • Size: 312 685 km²
  • Population: 38,654 million(similar to Spain)
  • Neighbours: Germany, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Lithuania
  • History: 1989 – first free elections after 10 year Solidarity movement, 1997 new Constitution
poland1
Poland
  • Type of state: Parliamentary democracy
  • President: Aleksander Kwaśniewski, (for second time)
  • Government: coalition of Social Democrats with Labour Union and People’s Social Party
  • Legislature: bicameral Parliament – Sejm of 460 members and Senat of 100 members
poland2
Poland

Relations with EU:

  • 1989 – Co-operation Agreement
  • 1991 – Association Agreement
  • 7th of June 2003 – referendum on Accession – 57% in favour (54% turnout)
poland3
Poland

Specific features:

  • the biggest candidate country,
  • the longest outside border
  • the biggest population,
  • big agriculture – but not very efficient
  • 70% economic activities from developing private sector
poland4
Poland

Position on Constitution:

  • Refusal to change the Nice voting system in the Council
  • one commissioner per country
  • reference to Christian traditions in the preamble requested
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