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OB and Challenges facing management. Improving productivity Be fast enough to match product development => consumer’s needs Higher levels of service to consumer Changing environment : global market, IT & Quality Service Revolution. Definition of OB.

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ob and challenges facing management
OB and Challenges facing management
  • Improving productivity
  • Be fast enough to match product development => consumer’s needs
  • Higher levels of service to consumer
  • Changing environment : global market, IT & Quality Service Revolution
definition of ob
Definition of OB
  • The study of human behaviour in organisational settings, the interface between human behaviour and the organisational context, and the organisation itself.“
  • Individual => a unique set of beliefs, values, attitudes and other personal characteristics
  • all individuals =>interact each other => to create organisational settings.
elements of organisational behaviour
ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
  • People, individuals and groups.
  • The groups may be big or small; formal or informal; official or unofficial
  • structure, formal relationships of the people in organisations
  • technology, machines and work processes provide the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform
  • the environment part of a larger system that contains many other elements such as government, family and other organisations
understanding ob objectives
Understanding OB Objectives
  • organisational behaviour can be understood at the individual level, interpersonal level, group level and inter-group level.
  • helps to analyse 'why' and 'how' an individual behaves in a particular way. => Interpersonal Level, group level , intergroup level
  • understand and achieve co-operative group relationships. => Controlling and Directing Behaviour, Use of Power and Sanction, Leadership, Communication, Organizational climate, Organisational Adaptation
new perspective
New Perspective
  • 3 major dimensions
  • Conceptual
  • Human
  • Technical

Human behavior => more complicated => behavioral approach in management

(Hawthorne Studies)

slide6
Definition of OB “The understanding , prediction, and control of human behavior in organization”

Individual

personality, perception, and attribution, attitudes, value, motivation, learning, emotion, stress

Group work team, leadership, power and politics

Organization work design, structure, culture, and organizational change

cases
Cases

John just graduated from the Colledge of Business Administration and has joined his family’s small business which employs 25 semiskilled workers. The first week on the job his dad called him in said ”John, I’ve had a chance to observe you working with the men and women for the past two days and , although I hate to, I feel I must say something. You are just too nice to people. I know they thought human relation stuff at the university, but it just doesn’t work here. I remember when Hawthorne studies were first reported and everybody at the university got all exited about them, but believe me, there is more to managing people than just nice to them”

people organization
People & Organization

The nature of people:

  • Individual differences
  • A whole person
  • Motivated behaviour
  • Value of the person

The nature of organisation:

  • Social system
  • Mutual interest
major elements of a good ob systems
Major elements of a good OB systems

Management Philosophy

Values – Visions - Goals

Social Environ-

ment

Orgn.Culture

Formal Orgn.

Informal Orgn.

Leadership-Communication-Group Dynamics

Quality of Worklife

Motivation

Out Come : Performance, Individual Satisfaction,

Personal Growth & Development

catogories of managerial roles
Catogories of managerial roles

FORMAL POSITIONAL AUTHORITY

INTERPERSONAL ROLES

Figure head – leadership – liaison

INFORMATIONAL ROLES

Monitor – disseminator – spokes person

DECISIONAL ROLES

Entrepreneur – problem solver – resource allocator – negotiator

global environment
Global Environment

The global scenario of organizational behaviour

  • Social, Political,Economic condition
  • Managing international workforce

The barriers to cultural adaptation and measures to overcome those barriers

  • Barriers to Cultural Adaptation, Different management philosophies
  • New language
  • Alternative food, dress, availability of goods
  • Attitude towards work and productivity
  • Separation from family, friends and colleagues
  • Unique currency system
slide12

Motivation

  • Ability
  • Perception Individual Behaviour
  • Personality

OB & Resources

Individual Performance

Individual effectiveness

personality
Personality
  • Understand perceptual clarity about personality
  • Discuss main determinants of personality
  • Explain nature and dimensions of personality
  • Describe personality attributes that are relevant to organizational behavior
personality traits
Personality traits
  • Extroversion : Sociable, talkative and assertive.
  • Agreeableness : Good-natured, cooperative and trusting.
  • Conscientiousness: Responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement-oriented.
  • Emotional Stability: Viewed from a negative standpoint such as tense, insecure and nervous.
  • Openness to Experience: Imaginative, artistically sensitive and intellectual.
  • Introversion is the tendency of individuals, which directs them to be inward and process feelings, thoughts and ideas within themselves
personality factors in organisations
PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ORGANISATIONS
  • Determinants: biological, social and cultural.
  • Stages:Sigmund Freud : dependent, compulsive, oedipal and mature.
  • Traits: all people share common traits, like social, political, religious and aesthetic preferences
  • but each individual's nature differentiates that person from all others.
  • The need for achievement
  • The need for affiliation
  • The need for autonomy
  • The need for dominance
personality factors in organizations
PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  • Locus of Control
  • Introversion and Extroversion
  • Tolerance for Ambiguity
  • Self-Esteem and Self-Concept
  • Authoritarianism and Dogmatism
  • Risk Propensity
  • Machiavellianism
  • Type A and B Personalities
  • Work-Ethic Orientation
desired personality characteristics for effective managers
DESIRED PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGERS
  • should be able to handle situations as they come, without experiencing undue stress. Thus, a high tolerance for ambiguity is a desired managerial trait. Managers with a good mix of achievements, affiliations and power will be successful in most situations.
  • THE SELF-CONCEPT : SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-EFFICACY
  • -esteem has to do with their self-perceived competence and self-image
  • Self-efficacy is concerned with self-perceptions of how well a person can cope with situations
learning and behavior modification
LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
  • Understand various factors affecting human behavior
  • Explain implications of behavior modification
  • Describe reinforcement for inducing positive behavior

COMPONENTS OF THE LEARNING PROCESS

  • Cue Stimuli
  • Responses
  • Reinforcement
  • Retention
learning theories
LEARNING THEORIES
  • Classical Conditioning : Pavlov demonstrated the classical conditioning process.
  • Operant Conditioning : a behavior that produces effects (Reward - Punishment)
  • Positive Reinforcementstrengthens and increases behavior
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Extinction an effective method of controlling undesirable behavior
  • Punishment
  • OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Cognitive Learning,
attitute
ATTITUTE
  • Explain the concept of attitude in organizations
  • Understand the method of formation of attitude
  • Discuss individual attitude in organizations and indicate their effect on behaviour
  • Explain the concept of perception and perceptual process
  • Describe perception attribution in organizations
components of attitude
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
  • Affective component :

how we feel toward the situation

  • Cognitive component :

why we feel that way

  • Intentional component :

how we intend to behave toward the situation

attitude formation and change
ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE
  • Work-Related Attitudes : salary, promotion possibilities
  • Job Satisfaction
  • Organizational Commitment and Involvement

ATTITUDE IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

  • Perception
  • of the object include contrast, intensity, movement, repetition and novelty.
  • of the person include attitude, self-concept and personality.
basic perceptual process
Basic Perceptual Process
  • Selective Perception
  • Stereotyping
  • PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION
  • Attribution is a mechanism through which we observe behaviour and then attribute certain causes to it
  • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
  • impression management is the process by which the general people attempt to manage or control the perceptions that others form about them.