AP World History Chapter 14. The Last Nomadic Challenge: From Chinggis Khan to Timur. Mongol Culture. Nomadic pastoralists Goats, sheep Tribe Divided into clans Temporary confederations Leaders elected. Khan. Kabul Khan 1100s, defeats Qin forces Grandson, Temujin
The Last Nomadic Challenge:
From Chinggis Khan to Timur
Mongols first invaded kingdoms in China then turned west to the Islamic world and finally conquered the kingdoms of Russia.
Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) mobilized the Horde to invade many countries outside of Mongolia.
Mongols were the most formidable nomadic challenge to the stationary civilizations.
Their powerful short bows, fired from horseback, were devastating weapons.
Harsh discipline, enforced through a formal code, brought punishments and rewards for conduct.
The Mongols conquered the Northern kingdoms of China. (Xi and Xia, completely destroyed over two million people)
The Mongols captured fortified cities those that resisted were either killed or enslaved.
The armies of the Golden Horde, swept westward till they reached into Poland and Russia.
The Khan’s defeated the Russians in 1236 CE.
Kingdoms were spared if they paid tribute. Kingdoms that refused were burned to the ground and the soil was turned red with blood.
Ogedei renews attack on China
Grandson of Chinggis Khan
1271, transformation to Yuan dynasty
Capital at Tatu (Beijing)