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Mutations (p. 307). Mutations are changes in the genetic material. Mutations may be genetic mutations or chromosomal mutations. Genetic Mutations occur in the “code” on DNA or mRNA. Mistakes in copying the DNA: Inserting the wrong nucleotide

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Mutations p 307

Mutations (p. 307)

Mutations are changes in the genetic material.

Mutations may be genetic mutations or chromosomal mutations.


Genetic mutations occur in the code on dna or mrna
Genetic Mutations occur in the “code” on DNA or mRNA

  • Mistakes in

    • copying the DNA:

      • Inserting the wrong nucleotide

      • Skipping or adding a base when a new strand is assembled.


Point mutations
Point Mutations

Substitution:

THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT

THE TAT CAT ATE THE RAT


Point mutations1
Point Mutations

  • Genetic mutations involving only one or a few nucleotides.

  • Occur at a single point on the sequence.

  • Involve substitutions.


Frameshift mutations
Frameshift Mutations

Deletion:

THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT

THE ATC ATA TET HER AT

Insertion:

THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT

THE FFA TCA TAT ETH ETA T


Frameshift mutations1
FrameshiftMutations

  • If a nucleotide is inserted or deleted, the bases are still read in groups of three, but now these groupings are shifted for every group that follows. These are called frameshift mutations.


Are these a point mutations or frameshift mutations b substitutions deletions or insertions
Are these a) point mutations or frameshift mutations? B) substitutions, deletions or insertions?

1. THE FAT CTA TER AT

2. THE FAT CAA ATE THE RAT

3. THE EFA TCA TAT ETH ERA T


Gene mutations
Gene Mutations

  • So, gene mutations result from changes in a single gene.

  • They may be point mutation (substitution) or frameshift mutations (insertions or deletions).


Mutations p 307

  • They may be passed on to the next cellular generation. HOW?

  • Depending on which gene they effect they may cause no obvious problem or they may be devastating. (What would happen if there was a frameshift mutation in the gene that codes for the production of DNA polymerase?)


Chromosomal mutations p 308
Chromosomal mutations (p. 308)

  • Chromosomal mutations involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes.

  • Such mutations may change the locations of genes on a chromosome and may even change the number of copies of some genes available to the organism.


Four types p 308
Four types (p. 308):

  • Deletions

    • The loss of all or part of a chromosome

  • Duplications

    • Extra copies of the chromosome

  • Inversions

    • Reversal of the direction of part of the chromosome

  • Translocations

    • Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another (ie. 13 to 14)


Chromosomal mutations
Chromosomal mutations

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAGxp9j5rtc


Gene regulation
Gene regulation

  • For Monday, read pages 309 to 312 in your text.