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The Covering (1 Cor. 11:2-16). “Then the king’s countenance changed, and his thoughts troubled him, so that the joints of his hips were loosened and his knees knocked against each other.” (Dan. 5:6). Exposition. New Topic Indicators.

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“Then the king’s countenance changed, and his thoughts troubled him, so that the joints of his hips were loosened and his knees knocked against each other.” (Dan. 5:6)
new topic indicators
New Topic Indicators
  • “Now concerning the things of which youwrote to me….” (7:1)
  • “Now concerning things offered to idols….” (8:1)
  • “Now I PRAISE YOU, brethren….” (11:2)
  • “Now in giving these instructions I do not praise you….” (11:17)
  • “Now concerning spiritual gifts….” (12:1)
  • “Now concerning the collection for the saints….” (16:1)
the principle of headship
The Principle Of Headship

“But I want you to know that the head of every man is Christ, the head of woman isman, and the head of Christ isGod.” (11:3)

  • God (Jn. 14:28; 1 Cor. 15:27-28)
    • Christ (Phil. 2:9-11)
      • Man (Gen. 3:16)
        • Woman (1 Tim. 2:11-14)
submission inferiority
Submission  Inferiority
  • During the Incarnation, Jesus was submissive to the Father (1 Cor. 11:3; Phil. 2:5-8), but notinferior (Jn. 1:1-2, 14; 5:17-18, 22-23; 10:30; Col. 2:9)
  • After the Second Coming, Jesus will again be submissive to the Father, but notinferior (1 Cor. 15:24-28)
  • Women are to be submissive to men (1 Cor. 11:3; 1 Tim. 2:11-13), but they are notinferior (Gal. 3:28)
submission is for everyone
Submission Is For Everyone
  • Citizens to rulers (Rom. 13:1)
  • Wives to husbands (Eph. 5:22-24; Col. 3:18; 1 Pet. 3:1-6)
  • Children to parents (Eph. 6:1-3)
  • Slaves to masters (Eph. 6:5-6)
  • Christians to elders (Heb. 13:17)
  • Theyounger to theolder (1 Pet. 5:5)
submission is for everyone1
Submission Is For Everyone
  • Christians to one another (Eph. 5:21; 1 Pet. 5:5b)
  • Christians to special workers(1 Cor. 16:15-16)
  • The strongto the weak (Rom. 14:1; 15:1-3)
  • Women to men (1 Cor. 11:3; 1 Tim. 2:11-12)
the regulations
The Regulations
  • 1 Cor. 11:4: Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head.
  • 1 Cor. 11:5: But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovereddishonors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved.
dishonor shame
Dishonor & Shame
  • Man covered
    • Dishonors Christ (1 Cor. 11:4)
  • Woman uncovered
    • Dishonors Man(1 Cor. 11:5)
    • As Shameful as being Shorn or Shaved(1 Cor. 11:5-6)

Andy Mitchell

uncovered shorn or shaved
“Uncovered”  “Shorn” Or “Shaved”
  • 1 Cor. 11:5: But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved.
  • 1 Cor. 11:6: For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered.
hair length
Hair Length
  • Shorn [keiro] (11:6) = Short Hair [e.g. “Government Issue”]
  • Shaved [xurao] (11:5-6) = No Hair [e.g. The Kojak Look]
  • Has Long Hair [kamao] (11:14-15) = Long Hair [e.g. The Hair Of Women (Rev. 9:8; cf. 1 Tim. 2:9; 1 Pet. 3:3)]
the reasons
The Reasons
  • Man should not be covered, because he is the image and glory of God (11:7a)
  • Woman is the glory of man which implies that she should be covered (11:7b)
    • Woman is from man (11:8; cf. Gen. 2:21-23)
    • Woman was created for man (11:9; cf. Gen. 2:18)
a woman ought to have translations of 1 cor 11 10
“A Woman Ought To Have…”(Translations of 1 Cor. 11:10)
  • “authority to have on the head” (MI, BI)
  • “authority over her own head” (ISV)
  • “power on her head” (KJV)
  • “a token of authority upon the head” (YLT)
  • “a symbol of authority on her head” (NKJV, NASB, ESV, NRSV, NCV)
  • “a sign of authority on her head” (ASV, NIV)
a woman ought to have translations of 1 cor 11 101
“A Woman Ought To Have…”(Translations of 1 Cor. 11:10)
  • “a veil on her head” (RSV)
  • “Something to symbolize her subjection” (Goodspeed)
  • “a symbol of subjection” (Moffatt)
  • “a symbol of man’s authority” (Williams)
authority on her head interpretations of 1 cor 11 10
“Authority On Her Head”(Interpretations of 1 Cor. 11:10)
  • A sign of subjection to man
  • The woman’s authority to speak
  • A magical authority against evil angels
  • An Aramaic colloquialism for “veil”

Terry, "No Such Custom," 11

because of the angels translations of 1 cor 11 10
“Because Of The Angels”(Translations of 1 Cor. 11:10)
  • “because of the angels” (KJV, ASV, CEV, ESV, ISV, NASB, NCV, NIV, NRSV, WNT)
  • “On account of the angels” (GNT)
  • “because the angels are watching” (NLT)
  • “because of the messengers” (YLT)
because of the angels interpretations of 1 cor 11 10
“Because Of The Angels”(Interpretations of 1 Cor. 11:10)
  • An allusion to the evil angels who lusted after the “daughters of men” (Gen. 6:1-4)
  • An allusion to the angels who sinned when they did not keep their proper domain (Jude 6; 2 Pet. 2:4)
  • An allusion to good angelswho would be offended at any breach of these instructions
because of the angels interpretations of 1 cor 11 101
“Because Of The Angels”(Interpretations of 1 Cor. 11:10)
  • An allusion to the fact that since angels submit to and recognize authority, women should as well
  • An allusion to the fact that since the angels reverently veil their faces before God (Isa. 6:2), women should as well
mutual dependence 1 cor 11 11 12
Mutual Dependence(1 Cor. 11:11-12)
  • “The woman was from the man”
    • Eve, was created from Adam’s rib (Gen. 2:21-23)
  • “Even so the man also is through the woman”
    • All men are born into the world through women (Gen. 3:20; Job 14:1)
nature phusis
“Nature”(Phusis)

Thayer: “fr. Hom. Od. 10, 303 down; nature, i.e. a. the nature of things, the force, laws, order, of nature; as opp. to what is monstrous, abnormal, perverse….nature, i.e. naturalsense, native convictionor knowledge, as opp. to what is learned by instruction and accomplished by training or prescribed by law…(i.e. the native sense of propriety)…1 Cor. xi. 14…. b. birth, physical origin…. c. a mode of feelingand acting which by long habit has becomenature…Eph. ii. 3…. d. the sum of innate properties and powers by which one person differs from others, distinctive native peculiarities, natural characteristics….”(#5449, 660-661)

nature 1 cor 11 14
“Nature”(1 Cor. 11:14)
  • That which is innate or inborn (cf. Rom. 1:26; 2:27; 11:21, 24; Gal. 2:15; 4:8)
  • That which is established by custom or long practice (cf. Eph. 2:1-3)
nature teaches
Nature Teaches…
  • If a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him (11:14)
  • If a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her (11:15)
nature
“Nature”

Paul Marsh: “Differing cultures have had differing concepts as to what is fitting, but as a generalization the statement is still true. Most men, whether eastern or western, wear their hair short in contrast to their womenfolk.” (“The First Letter To The Corinthians,” The New Layman’s Bible Commentary, 1444)

nature1
“Nature”

Mike Willis: “The exact manner in which nature has distinguished between man and woman’s hair is not clear; men can grow long hair and some men can grow it in abundance. Whether by chance or something else, however, women have generally worn their hair longer than men; cases in which a man’s hair is longer than that of the woman have been the exception and not the rule. Thus, nature has distinguished between the sexes so far as the hair is concerned, whether that is learned by long established habit or by something innate.”(“1 Corinthians,” Truth Commentaries, 307)

two coverings
Two Coverings

A Permanent Covering:Her hair is a covering [peribolaion] (1 Cor. 11:15)

A Temporary Covering: A covering [katakalupto] while praying or prophesying (1 Cor. 11:5-6, 13)

1 cor 11 16 translations
1 Cor. 11:16(Translations)

Literal

  • KJV: “But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God.”(cf. ASV, NEB, ISV, NLT, GNB, Wuest)
  • NASB: “But if one is inclined to be contentious, we have no other practice, nor have the churches of God.”(cf. RSV, NIV, ESV, Goodspeed, Williams)

Interpretive

if anyone seems to be contentious 1 cor 11 16
“If Anyone Seems To Be Contentious”(1 Cor. 11:16)
  • Frank Jamerson: “He [Paul] may have appeared to be contentious (when he was not, cp. 1 Cor. 12:22; Gal. 2:6), because he was binding these things on the Corinthian women when he did not bind them in other places.” (“A Brief Study Of The Veil,” 8)
is the anyone paul 1 cor 11 16
Is The “Anyone” Paul?(1 Cor. 11:16)
  • This man “seems to be contentious” because he is contentious just as the man who “seems to be religious” (Jas. 1:26 KJV) is religious (cf. Acts 17:18; 1 Cor. 3:18; Heb. 12:11)
  • The “any man” is distinguished from the “we” [the apostles] and “the churches of God”
we have no such custom 1 cor 11 16
“We Have No Such Custom”(1 Cor. 11:16)
  • While the Corinthians had to respect their local custom, the apostles and other churches elsewhere did not have that particular custom
  • If a man was contentious about Paul’s instructions, he needed to realize that he was flying in the face of the accepted custom [i.e. practice] of the apostles and the churches of God
literal is not always best
“Literal” Is Not Always Best
  • 2 Ki. 9:8:
    • KJV: “For the whole house of Ahab shall perish: and I will cut off from Ahab him that pisseth against the wall, and him that is shut up and left in Israel:”
    • NKJV: “For the whole house of Ahab shall perish; and I will cut off from Ahab all the males in Israel, both bond and free.
literal is not always best1
“Literal” Is Not Always Best
  • Phil. 2:1:
    • KJV: “ If there be therefore any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies,
    • NKJV: “Therefore if there is any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any affection and mercy,
literal is not always best2
“Literal” Is Not Always Best
  • Phile. 7:
    • KJV: “For we have great joy and consolation in thy love, because the bowels of the saints are refreshed by thee, brother.”
    • NKJV: “For we have great joy and consolation in your love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed by you, brother.”
commentators on 1 cor 11 16
Commentators On 1 Cor. 11:16
  • Interpretation #1 [Local Custom]
    • ???
  • Interpretation #2 [Rejecting Precedent]
    • Barnes, Clarke, Farrar, Henry, JFB, Johnson, Lightfoot, Lipscomb, Lowery, Macknight, Marsh, McGuiggan, Morris, Vincent, WBC, Willis, Zerr
two basic positions
Universal Command

Local Custom

Long Hair Is Covering

Spiritual Gifts

Covering Of Spiritual Head

Two Basic Positions

Required

Not Required

the proper attitude
The Proper Attitude

James Needham: “It should not matter to us what God wants, and we should be anxious to do whatever He requires.” (Emphasis added, “The Woman’s Covering,” 14)

six important questions
Six Important Questions
  • What? (Veil or Hair)
  • Why? (Custom or Command)
  • Who? (Inspired or Uninspired)
  • Where? (Assembly or Anywhere)
  • How? (Spoken Prayer or Silent)
  • When? (Praying or Prophesying only, While Worshipping God)

Gary Fisher

interpretation 1
Interpretation #1

The Covering Was A Universal Command

arguments for a veil
Arguments For A “Veil”
  • Paul’s instructions concerning headship (11:3) are universal and not subject to custom or culture
  • Paul’s instructions concerning the head covering (11:4-5) grow out his instructions concerning headship (11:3)
  • Paul bases his argument on things that transcend culture and custom
basis for this instruction
Basis For This Instruction
  • The Nature of Man (11:7)
    • Man is the image and glory of God
    • Woman is the glory of man
  • The order and purpose of creation (11:8-9)
    • Woman was created from man (cf. Gen. 2:21-23)
    • Woman was created for man (cf. Gen. 2:18)
  • The Angels (11:10)

These Things Have Nothing To DoWith Culture Or Custom

angels
Angels…
  • Subject to Christ (1 Pet. 3:22)
  • Cannot die (Lk. 20:34-36)
  • Behold the Father’s face (Mt. 18:10)
  • Observe the saints (1 Tim. 5:21)
  • Minister to the saints (Heb. 1:14)
  • Protect believers (Psa. 34:7; 91:9-11)
  • Rejoicewhen a sinner repents (Lk. 15:10)
the order of creation
1 Cor. 11:8-9:8For man is not from woman, but woman from man. 9Nor was man created for the woman, but woman for the man.

1 Tim. 2:11-13:11Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. 12And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. 13For Adam was formed first, then Eve.

The Order Of Creation
  • Same argument in both passages
  • If one doesn’t apply, neither does the other

Andy Mitchell

arguments for a veil1
Arguments For A “Veil”
  • Paul’s appeal to the Corinthians’ personaljudgment and nature are secondary arguments designed to corroborate what he has already taught (11:13-15)
  • Paul’s appeal to apostolic precedentindicates that this was not just a local custom at Corinth (11:16)
  • There is historical evidence that Christian women wore a head covering
even nature teaches
Even Nature Teaches

13 Judge among yourselves. Is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 14 Does not even nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him? 15 But if a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given to her for a covering. (1 Cor. 11:13-15)

  • Paul’s Argument: The natural covering [the hair] illustrates the propriety of the artificial covering [the veil]

Donahue

no such custom
No Such Custom
  • Book written for Corinthians and “all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord….” (1:2)
  • Same things taught in all the churches (4:17; 7:17; 14:33)

1 Cor. 11:16: But if anyone seems to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor do the churches of God.

Donahue

uniform teaching
Uniform Teaching
  • “Speak the same thing” (1 Cor. 1:10)
  • “I teach everywhere in every church” (1 Cor. 4:17)
  • “So I ordain in all the churches” (1 Cor. 7:17)
  • “In all churches of the saints” (1 Cor. 14:33)
  • “As I have given orders to the churches of Galatia, so you must do also (1 Cor. 16:1)
  • “Walk by the same rule” (Phil. 3:16)

Andy Mitchell

catacomb pictures
Catacomb Pictures

Marvin R. Vincent: “The testimonies of Tertullian and Chrysostom show that these injunctions of Paul prevailed in the churches. In the sculptures of the catacombs the women have a close-fitting head-dress, while the men have the hair short.” (Word Studies In The New Testament, 3:248)

objection
Objection

The Modern “Veil” Is Not Sufficient

bill cavender
Bill Cavender

“The covering was the veil, that which hanged down from the head and covered the head. The modern hat, shawl, scarf, bonnet, doily or mantilla will not do. I have NEVER yet seen a woman in the assembly meet the demands of I Cor. 11:2-16. One cannot substitute a hat, net, ribbon, scarf, etc., for the veil, the covering of I Cor. 11:2-16. One might as well substitute sprinkling for immersion, cornbread for unleavened bread or Coca-Cola for the fruit of the vine in the Lord’s Supper, or buttermilk for water in baptism, as to substitute a hat for the veil of I Cor. 11:2-16.” (“The Woman And Her Covering,” 5-6)

bill cavender1
Bill Cavender

“Paul could have used ‘pilos’ if a hat or cap were sufficient as a covering, but he did not. He used ‘kata’ and ‘kalupto,’ clearly distinguishing that covering which must hang down from the head. The covering was specific – the veil. …. No scholar would permit a hat, cap, shawl, mantilla, turban, etc., as a substitute for the kalumma demanded.” (“The Woman And Her Covering,” 29)

type of covering not specified
Type Of Covering Not Specified
  • This argument is a “red herring.”
    • At best it shows that head covering advocates donotobey the requirements of this passage; it does not show that the requirements of this passage need not beobeyed
  • The passage does notspecify a particular “covering”(i.e. size, shape, composition, color, etc.)
the ancient headdress
The Ancient Headdress

Jim McGuiggan: “Veils came in all shapes and sizes. There were those which were suspended so as to cover the face. Some were on the head and flowed backward down over the shoulders. Some completely hid the woman’s head and shoulders. Some hid the whole woman from head to foot. Many were like shawls which were placed on the head and wrapped around the shoulders (like the tallith worn by Jewish men). There were veils designed for different times of the day and for different occasions. The one thing on which all the authorities unite is this: Veils were ‘an essential article of female attire.’” (“The Book of 1 Corinthians,” Looking Into The Bible Series, 143)

the ancient headdress1
The Ancient Headdress

Marvin R. Vincent: “The head-dress of Greek women consisted of nets, hair-bags, or kerchiefs, sometimes covering the whole head. A shawl which enveloped the body was also often thrown over the head, especially at marriages or funerals. This costume the Corinthian women had disused in the Christian assemblies….”(Word Studies in the New Testament, 3:247)

type of covering not specified1
Type Of Covering Not Specified
  • The meaning of a word is determined by usage, not etymology
  • Paul specifies that a woman cover her “head,” not her face
meaning usage not etymology
Meaning: Usage, Not Etymology

D. A. Carson: “One of the most enduring of errors, the root fallacy presupposes that every word actually has a meaning bound up with its shape or its components. In this view, meaning is determined by etymology; that is, by the root or roots of a word.” (Exegetical Fallacies, 26)

etymology meaning
Etymology & Meaning
  • The English word “nice” comes from the Latin word nescius, which means “ignorant”
  • Our “Good-by” is a contraction for the Anglo-Saxon “God be with you”(D. A. Carson, Exegetical Fallacies, 26-27)
the root fallacy
The Root Fallacy
  • “Butterfly” [butter + fly] = ???
  • “Pineapple” [pine + apple] = ???
  • Monogenes [monos, only + gennao, to beget] = “only begotten” (cf. Heb. 11:17)
  • Katakaluptos [kata, down + kalupto, to cover] = “to cover down” (11:6-7)
  • Perebolaion [peri, around + ballo, throw or cast] = “to throw around” (11:15)
katakalupto in the lxx
Katakalupto In The LXX
  • Num. 22:5: Peoplecover the face of the earth
  • Ezek. 26:10: Dust will cover you
  • Ezek. 38:9: Like a cloud to cover the land
  • Ezek. 38:16: Like a cloud to cover the land
  • Jer. 51:42 [28:42, LXX]: Babylon is covered with the multitude of waves

Does Katakalupto Mean “Hang Down”?

etymological definitions
Etymological Definitions
  • If katakalupto means:
    • Kata, down + kalupto, cover = “to cover down”
  • Does peribolaion mean:
    • Peri, around + ballo, to throw = “to throw around”

Must a woman wrap her hairaround her head???

the face the head
The Face  The Head
  • Lev. 13:45: Head bare – Cover moustache
  • Lev. 14:9: Shave off hair of head and beard and eyebrows
  • Josh. 7:6: Fell on face – Dust on head
  • Ezek. 7:18: Shame on every face – Baldness on all heads
  • Mt. 6:17: Anoint head & wash face
  • Rev. 9:7: Crown on heads – Faces like men
  • Rev. 10:1: Rainbow on head – Face like sun
problems for covering advocates
Problems For Covering Advocates
  • Restricting [?] the head covering to the assembly (as opposed to anywhere praying or prophesying occurs)
  • Requiring [?] a head covering while engaged in other activities than praying or prophesying
assembly or anywhere
Assembly Or Anywhere???
  • No clear indication of a “worship assembly” as in other passages (cf. 11:17-18, 20, 33-34; 14:23, 26, 34-35)
  • Paul’s restrictions on women (14:34-35) would preclude women prophesying in the “worship assembly”
limited to the assembly
Limited to the Assembly???
  • Women prophesied (Lk. 2:36; Acts 2:17; 21:9)
  • Women were not to speak in the assembly (1 Cor. 14:34-35)
  • Therefore, women prophesied outside of the assembly
  • Therefore, the head covering instruction is not limited to the assembly

Andy Mitchell

synecdoche
“Synecdoche”

“a figure of speech by which a part is put for the whole (as fifty sail for fifty ships), the whole for a part (as society for high society), the species for the genus (as cutthroat for assassin), the genus for the species (as a creature for a man), or the name of the material for the thing made (as boards for stage)” (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 10th ed., 1996)

examples of synecdoche
Examples Of Synecdoche
  • “Flesh and blood” = Human being (Eph. 6:12)
  • “Break bread” = The Lord’s Supper (Acts 20:7)
  • Prophecy, tongues, & knowledge = All spiritual gifts (1 Cor. 13:8-10)
  • “House of prayer” = House of worship (Mt. 21:13)
  • “Prayer” = Worship (Acts 16:13)
interpretation 2
Interpretation #2

The Covering Was A Local Custom

the custom argument
The “Custom” Argument

James Shear: “The church specifically (Corinth) did have to abide by this custom but the churches generally had ‘no such custom.’” (Emphasis Added, “Is It Law Today Or Was It Custom Then?” 398)

the custom argument1
The “Custom” Argument

Frank Jamerson: “In a country where women wear a covering as a sign of subjection, or walk behind their husbands to show respect, women should respect those customs, but in many countries such customs do not exist. When ‘we have no such custom’ we should not bind such practices.” (“A Brief Study Of The Veil,” 10)

the custom argument2
The “Custom” Argument

James Needham: “Paul was saying to the Corinthians thatneither ‘we(probably the Apostles JPN)nor the churches of God’ have any ‘such custom’ concerning the veil as obtained at Corinth. There is an obvious point of contrast in this verse. It is axiomatic that Corinth had a ‘custom’ that ‘we’ (the Apostles) and ‘the churches of God’ did not have. …. What custom is he talking about? The wording in the context…demands that it is the woman’s veil at Corinth. Nothing else is consistent with the train of thought in process in the text.”(“The Woman’s Covering,” 24)

arguments for a local custom
Arguments For A “Local Custom”
  • “If it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved….” (11:5-6)
  • “Judge among yourselves.” (11:13)
  • “Is it proper….” (11:13)
  • “Does not even nature itself teach you….” (11:14)
  • “We have no such custom….” (11:16)
arguments for a local custom1
Arguments For A “Local Custom”
  • The “covering” had a meaning then in that society that it doesn’t have today in our society
  • The covering is just like the customs of foot-washing and the holy kiss
  • God has always required subjection, but He hasn’t always required a covering
covering for ot men
Covering For OT Men
  • Moses prophesied with a veil covering his face (2 Cor. 3:13; cf. Ex. 34:33-35)
  • Priests wore turban while ministering before Jehovah (Ex. 28:2-4; 39:27-29; Lev. 16:4)
  • David prayed with head covered while fleeing Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:30-31)
no covering for ot prophetesses
No Covering For OT Prophetesses
  • Miriam (Ex. 15:20-21)
  • Deborah (Jud. 4:4-5)
  • Huldah (2 Ki. 22:14-20; 2 Chr. 34:20-28)
  • Anna (Lk. 2:36-38)
arguments for a local custom2
Arguments For A “Local Custom”
  • Scholars affirm that Paul’s instructions concerning the covering reflect the actual customs of the day
  • The problem at Corinth was that some women with spiritual gifts were not respecting the customary signs of subjection and were removing them while praying and prophesying
judge krino 1 cor 11 13
“Judge” (Krino)(1 Cor. 11:13)
  • What is right (Lk. 12:57)
  • Righteous judgment (Jn. 7:24)
  • Whether it be right in the sight of God (Acts 4:19)
  • Them that are within (1 Cor. 5:12)
  • What I say (1 Cor. 10:15)
  • Among yourselves (1 Cor. 11:13)

Andy Mitchell

proper prepo 1 cor 11 13
“Proper” (Prepo)(1 Cor. 11:13)
  • It was fitting for Jesus to be baptized to fulfill all righteousness (Mt. 3:15)
  • Fornication, uncleanness, and covetousness are not fitting for saints (Eph. 5:3)
  • Women are to adorn themselves in that which is proper for women professing godliness (1 Tim. 2:9-10)
proper prepo 1 cor 11 131
“Proper” (Prepo)(1 Cor. 11:13)
  • Titus was instructed to speak the things that were proper to sound doctrine (Tit. 2:1)
  • It was fitting for God to make Christ perfect through sufferings (Heb. 2:10)
  • Jesus is a High Priest that is fitting for us (Heb. 7:26)
  • Is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? (1 Cor. 11:13)
covering like holy kiss foot washing
Covering Like Holy Kiss & Foot Washing

Who can show that covering the headwhile praying or prophesying was a custom before Paul wrote 1 Corinthians?

Aaron (Ex. 28:4, 40, 43)Moses (Ex. 34:32-35)David (2 Sam. 15:30-31)

  • Kissing was a form of greeting practiced for thousands of years before NT times (Gen. 27:26-27; 33:4; 45:15; Ex. 4:27; 18:7; 2 Sam. 14:33; 20:9; Lk. 7:45; 15:20)
  • Foot-washing was an act of hospitality practiced for thousands of years before NT times (Gen. 18:4; 19:2; 24:32; Jud. 19:21; 1 Sam. 25:41; 2 Sam. 11:8; Lk. 7:36-44)
custom or command
Custom Or Command???

James G. McCarthy

scholars on both sides
Scholars On Both Sides

Frank Jamerson: “Secular history can be quoted on both sides of this issue….The problem is that historians do not always indicate exactly what period or place they are discussing. Some have indicated that the tallith that Jewish men wear ‘came into practice in the fourth century A.D. and not the first’ (via Commentary on First Corinthians, Mike Willis, p. 357). Probably, there were different customs in different places in the first century, just as there are today.”(“A Brief Study Of The Veil,” 10)

the tallith custom
The Tallith Custom

Mike Willis: “J.W. Roberts writes: ‘Lenski quotes Maimonides to prove that Jewish men of N.T. times wore the prayer cloth. But Maimonides lived in the 12-13th century (1135-1204). Strack and Billerbeck have amassed the evidence to prove that the tallith custom arose out of the Old Testament references to mourning and ostracism and came into practice in the fourth century A.D. and not in the first. The question may be considered as settled.”(“1 Corinthians,” Truth Commentaries, 291-292)

slide88
“Scholars dispute, and the

case is still before the courts.”

Horace [65-8 BC]

interpretation 3
Interpretation #3

(Long) Hair Is The Covering

arguments for long hair
Arguments For (Long) Hair
  • The word “veil” [kaluma] is not used in this passage (cf. 2 Cor. 3:13-16)
  • The terms in this passage that allude to a “covering” do not necessarily demand a veil
  • Paul asks about the propriety of praying “uncovered” (1 Cor. 11:13), then he proceeds to talk about hair, not a veil
  • The “hair” is the only covering specified (11:15)
terms do not demand veil
Terms Do Not Demand “Veil”
  • “Covered” [kata] (11:4):
    • 480x in NT
    • cf. Mt. 8:32; Mk. 5:13; Lk. 8:33
  • “Uncovered” [akatakaluptos] (11:5, 13):
    • 2x in NT
  • “Covered” [katakalupto] (11:6-7):
    • 2x in NT
    • Cf. Kalupto (Mt. 8:24; 10:26; Lk. 8:16; 23:30; 2 Cor. 4:3; Jas. 5:20; 1 Pet. 4:8)
covered kata 1 cor 11 4
“Covered” (Kata)(1 Cor. 11:4)

Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon: “480 occurrences; AV translates as ‘according to’ 107 times, ‘after’ 61 times, ‘against’ 58 times, ‘in’ 36 times, ‘by’ 27 times, ‘daily + 2250’ 15 times, ‘as’ 11 times, and translated miscellaneously 165 times. 1 down from, through out. 2 according to, toward, along.” (#2596, Elec. Ed., n.p.)

arguments for long hair1
Arguments For (Long) Hair
  • Katakalupto and peribolaion may be used interchangeably (cf. Gen. 38:14-15)
  • A woman’s hair is given to her “for” [anti = “instead of”] a covering (11:15)
  • Every verse in this passage that refers to a woman being “covered” also mentions or alludes to the hair (11:5, 6, 15)
katakalupto peribolaion
Katakalupto & Peribolaion

Gen. 38:14-15:14 So she took off her widow’s garments, covered herself with a veil and wrapped herself, and sat in an open place which was on the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown, and she was not given to him as a wife. 15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a harlot, because she had covered her face.

katakalupto peribolaion1
Katakalupto & Peribolaion

Gen. 38:14-15:14 And removing the garments of the widowhood from herself, she put around [periebaleto] a lightweight covering, and bedecked herself, and sat by the gates of Enaim, which is in the byway of Timnath. For she knew [3older 2had become 1Shelah], but he did not give her to him as wife. 15 And [2beholding 3her 1Judah], assumed her to be a harlot. For she covered up [katekalupsato gar] her face, and [3not 1he recognized 2her].” (Online LXX Interlinear)

for a covering 1 cor 11 15
“For A Covering”(1 Cor. 11:15)
  • Berry’s Interlinear: “But if a woman have long hair, glory to her it is: for the long hair instead of a covering is given her.”
  • Nestle’s: “But a woman if she wears her hair long it is a glory to her because the long hair instead of a veil has been given her.”
  • YLT: “and a woman, if she have long hair, a glory it is to her, because the hair instead of a covering hath been given to her;”
arguments against long hair
Arguments Against (Long) Hair
  • If the hair is the only covering under consideration in this passage, why doesn’t Paul state that clearly?
  • If long hair is the only covering, why is it specified for specific activities[i.e. praying or prophesying] (11:4-5, 13)?
  • The context indicates that Paul is talking about two different coverings
covering for an occasion
Covering For An Occasion
  • Hamancovered his head while mourning (Esth. 6:12)
  • Women are to cover their heads while praying or prophesying (1 Cor. 11:5, 13)

The occasion implies an artificial covering that is “put-on-able” and “take-off-able”

if covering is long hair
If “Covering” Is (Long) Hair…

1 Cor. 11:4-5:4 Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head. 5 But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved. …. 13 Judge among yourselves. Is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered?

The Teaching Is The Same If WeLeave Out “Praying Or Prophesying”

two different coverings
Two Different Coverings
  • Two Different Times
    • Praying or Prophesying (11:4-5)
    • All the Time (11:15)
  • Two Different Greek Words
    • Katakalupto (11:6, 7) or akatakaluptos (11:5, 13)
    • Peribolaion (11:15)
  • Two Different Arguments
    • Creation (11:7-10)
    • Nature (11:14)
different greek words
Different Greek Words
  • “Covered” [kata] (11:4)
  • “Uncovered” [akatakaluptos] (11:5)
  • “Covered” [katakalupto] 2x (11:6)
  • “Cover” [katakalupto] (11:7)
  • “Covering” [peribolaion] (11:13)

Why The Change???

arguments against long hair1
Arguments Against (Long) Hair
  • If the “covering’ refers to hair, then Paul’s argument becomes nonsensical (11:5-6)
  • While anti (11:15) often means “instead of,” it doesn’t always mean that
is long hair the covering
Is (Long) Hair The Covering?

1 Cor. 11:5-6:5But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered [short hair] dishonors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved [no hair]. 6For if a woman is not covered [short hair], let her also be shorn [short hair]. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn [short hair] or shaved [no hair], let her be covered [long hair].

Paul’s Argument BecomesNonsensical

let her also be shorn 1 cor 11 6
“Let Her Also Be Shorn”(1 Cor. 11:6)
  • David Lipscomb: “The word ‘also’ in this verse plainly shows that the two veils – the natural hair and the veil with which the head was covered – are under consideration.” (A Commentary On The New Testament Epistles, “First Corinthians,” 2:164)
let her also be shorn 1 cor 11 61
“Let Her Also Be Shorn”(1 Cor. 11:6)
  • Carrol Sutton: “If the hair were the covering mentioned here, the woman would already be shorn, if not covered; therefore it would be impossible for her also to be shorn, like Paul suggests.” (“A Study Of 1 Corinthians 11:1-16, The Instructor, March 1989, 26:3:2)
let her also be shorn 1 cor 11 62
“Let Her Also Be Shorn”(1 Cor. 11:6)
  • Dick Ward: “Can you really believe that Paul would say, ‘if the woman has SHORT HAIR let her ALSO be shorn’? There is no REASON nor PURPOSE for Paul to instruct the woman with SHORT HAIR (uncovered?) to ALSO shave her head because by this position, ANY LENGTH of hair other than LONG is shameful – whether it be shaven, shorn, or this SHORT HAIR.” (A Study Of 1 Corinthians 11:1-16, 52)
definitions of anti 1 cor 11 15
Definitions Of Anti(1 Cor. 11:15)
  • BAGD: “orig. mng. local, opposite. Figurative 1. in order to indicate that one person or thing is, or is to be, replaced by another instead of in place of…. 2. in order to indicate that one thing is equiv. to another for, as, in place of…. hair as a covering 1 Cor 11:15….” (73)
  • A.T. Robertson: “It is not in the place of a veil, but answering to (anti, in the sense of anti in John 1:16), as a permanent endowment….” (WPNT, 4:162)
definitions of anti 1 cor 11 151
Definitions Of Anti(1 Cor. 11:15)
  • G.G. Findley: “And this ‘glory’ is grounded upon her humility: ‘because her hair to serve as a hood…has been given her’ – not as a substitute for head-dress (this would be to stultify Paul’s contention), but in the nature of a covering, thus to match the veil….” (Expositor’s Greek New Testament, 2:876)
definitions of anti 1 cor 11 152
Definitions Of Anti(1 Cor. 11:15)
  • Friedrich Buchsel: In its basic meaning of “over against” it does not occur in the NT, but is mostly used in the sense of a. “in place of,” …. In this respect it makes little difference whether the word denotes an actual replacement, an intended replacement, or a mere equivalent in estimation (Hb. 12:16…), or similarity (1 C. 11:15…).”(TDNT, 1:372)
what does anti mean
What Does Anti Mean?
  • Mt. 5:38: “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’
  • Mt. 17:27: Nevertheless, lest we offend them, go to the sea, cast in a hook, and take the fish that comes up first. And when you have opened its mouth, you will find a piece of money; take that and give it to them for Me and you.”

 “Instead Of”

 “For, Answering To”

what does anti mean1
What Does Anti Mean?
  • Mt. 20:28: just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”
  • Jn. 1:16: And of His fullness we have all received, and grace for grace.
  • 1 Cor. 11:15: But if a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given to her for a covering.

 “Instead Of”

 “For, Answering To”

arguments against long hair2
Arguments Against (Long) Hair
  • The fact that katakalupto and peribolaionmay be used interchangeably in some contexts does not prove that they are used interchangeably in this context
  • The original words translated “cover” and “uncover” (1 Cor. 11:5-7, 13) are not used elsewhere to refer to the hair
  • The original words translated “cover” and “uncover” (1 Cor. 11:5-7, 13) are used elsewhere to refer to an artificial covering
apokalupto refers to hair numbers 5 18
Apokalupto Refers To Hair(Numbers 5:18)
  • KJV: “And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and uncover [apokalupto (LXX)] the woman’s head, and put the offering of memorial in her hands….” [YLT, NKJV]
  • NASB: “‘The priest shall then have the woman stand before the Lord and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and place the grain offering of memorial in her hands….” [ASV, NIV, ESV, NRSV]
apokalupto refers to hair numbers 5 181
Apokalupto Refers To Hair(Numbers 5:18)
  • BDGB: “unbind head (by removing turban, sign of mourning)….” (#6544)
  • Keil & Delitzsch: “The loosening of the hair of the head (see Lev. xiii. 45), in other cases a sign of mourning, is to be regarded here as a removal or loosening of the femalehead-dress, and a symbol of the loss of the proper ornament of female morality and conjugal fidelity.”

Donahue

apokalupto refers to hair isa 47 2
Apokalupto Refers To Hair(Isa. 47:2)
  • KJV: “Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover [apokalupto (LXX)] thy locks [katakalumma], make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers.”
  • NKJV: “Take the millstones and grind meal. Remove [apokalupto] your veil [katakalumma], Take off the skirt, Uncover the thigh, Pass through the rivers.” [cf. YLT, ASV, NASB, NIV, ESV, NRSV]
cover used of veil
“Cover” Used Of “Veil”
  • The word “cover” [katakalupto] (11:6-7) is used of an artificial covering (Gen. 38:15, LXX; cf. Esth. 6:12 [3 MSS])
  • The word “uncovered” [akatakaluptos] (11:5, 13) is used of uncovering the head (Lev. 13:45 [1 MSS])
    • Katakalupsis (The Shepherd of Hermas 4:2:1)
    • Katakalumma (Isa. 47:2)

Bruce Terry, "No Such Custom," p. 7

arguments against long hair3
Arguments Against (Long) Hair
  • The early “Church Fathers” believed that Paul is referring to some kind of an artificial covering or veil in this context
  • Many scholars believe that Paul is referring to some kind of an artificial covering or veil in this context
church fathers the veil
Church Fathers & The Veil

Irenaeus [120-202]: “Again, the coming of the Saviour with His attendants to Achamoth is declared in like manner by him in the same Epistle, when he says, ‘A woman ought to have a veil upon her head, because of the angels.’”99(Against Heresies, I:8:2)

99 1 Cor. xi. 10. Irenaeus here reads kalumma, veil, instead of exousian, power, as in the received text. [An interesting fact, as it betokens an old gloss, which may have slipped into the text of some ancient mss.]

church fathers the veil1
Church Fathers & The Veil

Tertullian [150-225]: “Behold two diverse names, Man and woman- ‘every one’ in each case: two laws, mutually distinctive; on the one hand (a law) of veiling, on the other (a law) of baring.” (On The Veiling Of Virgins, Ch. VIII)

church fathers the veil2
Church Fathers & The Veil

Clement Of Alexandria [153-217]: “Woman and man are to go to church decently attired, with natural step, embracing silence, possessing unfeigned love, pure in body, pure in heart, fit to pray to God. Let the woman observe this, further. Let her be entirely covered, unless she happen to be at home. For that style of dress is grave, and protects from being gazed at. And she will never fall, who puts before her eyes modesty, and her shawl; nor will she invite another to fall into sin by uncovering her face. For this is the wish of the Word, since it is becoming for her to pray veiled.” (The Instructor, 3:11)

church fathers the veil3
Church Fathers & The Veil

Hippolytus [170-236]: “5All the women should cover their heads with a pallium, and not simply with a piece of linen, which is not a proper veil.” (Apostolic Tradition, 18:5)

covered kata
“Covered”(kata)
  • BAGD: “I. with the gen. (so 73 times in NT)) -- 1. of place -- a.down fromsometh. (Hom.+; LXX)….k. kephales echeinhavesometh.on one’s head (lit. hanging down fr. the head, as a veil….) 1 Cor 11:4.”(405)
  • Robertson: “Literally, having a veil (kalumma understood) down from the head….”(Word Pictures in the New Testament, 4:159)
covered kata1
“Covered”(kata)
  • Thayer: “a preposition denoting motion or diffusion or direction from the higher to the lower; as in class. Grk., joined with the gen. And the acc. I. With the GENITIVE…. 1. prop. a. down from, down….hence kata kephales (a veil hanging down from his head) echon, 1 Co. xi. 4 ([A.V. having his head covered]….”(#2596, 326-329)
covered kata2
“Covered”(kata)
  • Marvin R. Vincent: “Lit., having something hanging down from his head. Referring to the tallith, a four-cornered shawl having fringes consisting of eight threads, each knotted five times, and worn over the head in prayer. It was placed upon the worshipper’s head at his entrance into the synagogue.” (Word Studies In The New Testament, 3:246)
uncovered akatakaluptos
“Uncovered”(akatakaluptos)
  • BAGD: “uncovered…with unc. head (of praying women….) 1 Cor 11:5, In short gunaika a.a woman without head-covering vs. 13.” (29)
  • Thayer: “not covered, unveiled: 1 Co. xi. 5, 13.” (#177, 21)
  • Vine: “uncovered (a, negative, katakalupto, to cover), is used in 1 Cor. 11:5, 13, R.V., ‘unveiled,’ with reference to the injunction forbidding women to be unveiled in a church gathering.” (#177, 1187-1188)
covered katakalupto
“Covered”(katakalupto)
  • BAGD: “…cover, veil.1. act. (Is 6:2) and pass. (Sus 32 Theod.) of a young woman…covered or veiled to the forehead Hv 4, 2, 1. But here the form could also be 2. mid. cover oneself w. a veil, abs. (s. Jos., Ant. 7, 254)1 Cor 11:6a, b….” (411)
  • Thayer: “fr. Hom. Down; to cover up [see kata, III.3]; Mid. Pres. katakaluptomai, to veil or cover one’s self: 1 Cor. xi. 6; ten kephalen, one’s head, ib. 7.” (#2619, 331)
covered katakalupto1
“Covered”(katakalupto)
  • Robertson: “Let her be veiled (kata-kaluptestho). Present middle imperative of old compound kata-kalupto, here alone in N.T. Let her cover up herself with the veil (down, kata, the Greek says, the veil hanging down from the head). …. The veil on the woman’s head is the symbol of the authority that the man with the uncovered head has over her.”(Word Pictures in the New Testament, 4:160-161)
an artificial covering
An Artificial Covering

Kenneth Wuest: “4Every man while praying or prophesying [giving out the word of God in the public assembly, which word he received by divine revelation] having a shawl hanging down over his head [a Jewish and Roman custom] dishonors his head. 5But every woman while praying or prophesying with her head uncovered dishonors her head, for this would be one and the same thing as if she had her head shaved. 6For, assuming that a woman is uncovered, let her also cut her hair close. But since it is dishonorable for a woman to be shaven or have her hair cropped close, let her put a shawl down over her head.” (The New Testament : An Expanded Translation)

an artificial covering1
An Artificial Covering

Goodspeed: “5And any woman who offers prayer or explains the will of God bareheaded disgraces her head…. 13Judge for yourselves. Is it proper for a woman to offer prayer to God with nothing on her head?”

an artificial covering2
An Artificial Covering
  • Amplified: “bareheaded” (11:5)
  • 20th Century: “bare-headed” (11:5)
  • Williams: “bareheaded” (11:5); “nothing on her head” (11:13)
  • Tyndale: “bare-headed” (11:5, 13)
  • Coverdale: “bare-headed” (11:13)
  • Cranmer: “bare-headed” (11:5, 13)
  • Geneva: “bare-headed” (11:5, 13)

Donahue

interpretation 4
Interpretation #4

The Covering Was For Those With Spiritual Gifts

the spiritual gifts argument
The Spiritual Gifts Argument
  • The covering restrictions were given to those with miraculous spiritual gifts
  • Miraculous spiritual gifts are no longer available to Christians today
  • Therefore, the covering restrictions are no longer applicable today
prophecy inspired teaching
Prophecy = Inspired Teaching
  • Lk. 1:67:67 Now his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying:
  • Acts 19:6:6 And when Paul had laid hands on them, the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they spoke with tongues and prophesied.
  • 1 Pet. 1:20-21:20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, 21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they weremoved by the Holy Spirit.
miraculous spiritual gifts 1 cor 12 8 10
Word of Wisdom

Word of Knowledge

Faith

Gifts of Healing

Working of Miracles

Prophecy

Discerning of Spirits

Kinds of Tongues

Interpretation of Tongues

Miraculous Spiritual Gifts(1 Cor. 12:8-10)
prayer could be inspired 1 cor 14 13 17
Prayer Could Be Inspired(1 Cor. 14:13-17)

13Therefore let him who speaks in a tongue pray that he may interpret. 14For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays, but my understanding is unfruitful. 15What is the conclusion then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will also pray with the understanding. I will sing with the spirit, and I will also sing with the understanding. 16Otherwise, if you bless with the spirit, how will he who occupies the place of the uninformed say “Amen” at your giving of thanks, since he does not understand what you say? 17For you indeed give thanks well, but the other is not edified.

praying prophesying
Praying & Prophesying
  • Prophesying was always inspired teaching
  • Praying and prophesying are linked together
  • Since prophesying involved “public speaking,” that is presumptive evidence that praying involved “public speaking”
  • Praying can refer to “leading prayer” (cf. Neh. 11:17; 1 Cor. 14:14-16)
praying prophesying1
Praying & Prophesying
  • It was inspired prophesying and praying that would have caused a problem with woman’s subjection and the sign of it
prophesying praying
Prophesying & Praying

Bill Cavender: “Since the ‘praying’ of I Cor. 11:4-5 is joined to the ‘prophesying’ and prophesying is ALWAYS inspired teaching, and since both the praying and prophesying are adjectives (participles) modifying the same man and the same woman, there is here strong presumptive evidence that the praying is inspired praying and not ordinary prayers of uninspired people.”(“The Woman And Her Covering,” 17)

prophesying praying1
Prophesying & Praying

Frank Jamerson: “The question is: which kind of prayer would have caused a problem with woman’s subjection and the sign of it? (Listening to a man lead a prayer would not have produced a question about subjection. Praying ‘with the Spirit’ would.)” (“A Brief Study Of The Veil,” 3)

spiritual gifts to cease 1 cor 13 8 10
Spiritual Gifts To Cease(1 Cor. 13:8-10)

8Love never fails. But whether there areprophecies, they will fail; whether there aretongues, they will cease; whether there isknowledge, it will vanish away. 9For we know in part and we prophesy in part. 10But when that which is perfect has come, then that which is in part will be done away.

spiritual gifts to cease 1 cor 13 11 13
Spiritual Gifts To Cease(1 Cor. 13:11-13)

11When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put awaychildish things. 12For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part, but then I shall know just as I also am known. 13And now abidefaith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love.

impartation of spiritual gifts
Impartation Of Spiritual Gifts

Holy Spirit Baptism

Laying On OfApostolic Hands

impartation through hs baptism
Impartation Through HS Baptism
  • Only two cases of HS baptism
    • The apostles (Acts 2:1-4)
    • Cornelius and his household (Acts 10:44-48; 11:15-17; 15:7-9)
  • Only “one baptism” when Paul wrote Ephesians [AD 61-63] (Eph. 4:5; cf. 5:26)
  • Therefore, the impartation of spiritual gifts through HS baptism is impossible today
impartation through the laying on of apostolic hands
Impartation Through The Laying On Of Apostolic Hands
  • Only the apostles could impart spiritual gifts through the laying on of hands (Acts 8:14-19; 19:6)
  • When the last apostle died, spiritual gifts could no longer be imparted through the laying on of hands
  • When the last person with spiritual gifts died, spiritual gifts ceased to exist
arguments against spiritual gifts position
Arguments Against Spiritual Gifts Position
  • Can we be sure that “prophesying” always referred to inspired speech?
  • Principles for those with spiritual gifts still apply
  • If Paul is discussing spiritual gifts, why does he later introduce that subject (1 Cor. 12:1)
  • If “prophesying” is inspired, that doesn’t prove that “praying” is inspired
    • “Praying” OR “Prophesying”
uninspired prophets
Uninspired Prophets
  • Abraham (Gen. 20:7)
  • Aaron (Ex. 4:14-16 & 7:1-2)
  • Prophets of Baal & Asherah (1 Ki. 18:19)
  • False Prophets (cf. Isa. 30:9-10; Mt. 7:15; 2 Pet. 2:1)
  • Epimenides (Tit. 1:12)
prophet not necessarily inspired
Prophet Not Necessarily Inspired

R.C.H. Lenski: “‘Prophesy’ is used to designate the gift or office of a prophet. In Romans 12:16 it is mentioned together with two other gifts. This term is used in a double sense: broadly to indicate any and all ability to communicate the saving will of God to others so that every true teacher and preacher may be called a prophet; and more narrowly to designate the receiving and the communicating of direct and special messages from God.”(Emphasis Added, Comment on 1 Cor. 12:10, via Hiram Hutto, “The Woman’s Covering,” 43)

prophet not necessarily inspired1
Prophet Not Necessarily Inspired

Robertson and Plummer: “The ‘prophesying’ means public teaching, admonishing, or comforting; delivering God’s message to the congregation (I Cor. 13:9, 14:1,3,24,31,39).” (Emphasis Added, International Critical Commentary on I Cor. 11, via Hiram Hutto, “The Woman’s Covering,” 43)

false prophecy
Jer. 5:31

Jer. 14:14

Jer. 23:21, 25-26, 30-32

Jer. 29:8-9

Mic. 2:11

Ezek. 13:3, 6-7

Ezek. 22:28

False Prophecy

An erroneous claim to be speaking by the inspiration of God

some called prophets are not true prophets of god
Some Called “Prophets” Are Not True Prophets Of God
  • “Prophet(s)” can refer to false prophet(s), just as “god(s)” can refer to false god(s) [i.e. idols] (1 Cor. 8:4-6)
  • The false prophets did not really “proclaim a divine revelation” but they claimed to speak for God (Jer. 23:21-22, 25-26, 31-32)
some called prophets are not true prophets of god1
Some Called “Prophets” Are Not True Prophets Of God
  • Because a word may mean (or refer to) one thing in one context does not mean that it means (or refers to) the same thing in another context (cf. Jn. 3:8; Mt. 13:33)
  • Sometimes “prophecy” refers to the activities of false prophets who did not speak by the inspiration of God (Jer. 14:14-15; Ezek. 22:28), but normally it refers to the proclamations of inspired men
some called prophets are not true prophets of god2
Some Called “Prophets” Are Not True Prophets Of God
  • What does the word “prophesying” mean in the context of 1 Cor. 11?
  • If “prophesying” refers to something other than “inspired teaching” in this passage, we need compelling evidence to prove that
principles still apply
Principles Still Apply
  • “Let all things be done for edification” (1 Cor. 14:26)
  • “God is not the author of confusion but of peace” (1 Cor. 14:33)
  • “Let the women keep silent in the churches” (1 Cor. 14:34-35)
  • “Let all things be done decently and in order” (1 Cor. 14:40)
principles still apply1
Principles Still Apply
  • “Leave your gift there before the altar…” (Mt. 5:23-24)
  • “A prophet is not without honor except in his own country….” (Mt. 13:57)
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Mike Willis: “This exegesis fails to take into consideration the distributive usage of pas [every], which in this verse refers to each individual in a class. A comparable English construction would be as follows: ‘Every child having chickenpox or having measles....’ No one would consider that both participial phrases in this sentence applied to the same child; rather, we would recognize this distributive usage of ‘every.’ There is no grammatical reason for believing that proseuchomai is limited in meaning to inspired prayer or for believing that the one prophesying is the same person as the one who is praying. One might ask those who take the position of inspired prayer: ‘Could a man with his head covered lead an uninspired prayer in the assemblies of the first century?’” (“1 Corinthians,” Truth Commentaries, 296-297)
things not proven
Things Not Proven
  • Paul was talking about “inspired prayer”
  • Paul was talking about “leading prayer”
  • Paul’s instructions applyonly to “miraculous prayer”
inspired prayer
Inspired Prayer???
  • In the NT prayer is usually uninspired
  • Prayer is not one of the nine spiritual gifts (1 Cor. 12:4-10)
  • In 1 Cor. 14:14, the tongue was the gift, not the prayer [???]
  • Paul said “praying or prophesying” not “praying and prophesying”
  • Miraculous gifts linked with non-miraculous gifts
interpretation 5
Interpretation #5

The Covering Is Of One’s Spiritual Head

covering the spiritual head
Covering The Spiritual Head

1 Cor. 11:3-5:3 But I want you to know that the spiritualhead of every man is Christ, the spiritualhead of woman is man, and the spiritualhead of Christ is God. 4 Every man praying or prophesying, having his spiritualhead covered, dishonors his spiritualhead. 5 But every woman who prays or prophesies with her spiritualhead uncovered dishonors her spiritualhead….(Italicized words added)

covering the spiritual head1
Covering The Spiritual Head

1 Cor. 11:4: “Every man praying or prophesying having his [spiritual] head [Christ] covered [i.e. veiled, hidden, obscured, ignored, disregarded, etc. (cf. 2 Cor. 4:3-4)] dishonors his [spiritual] head [Christ].”

1 Cor. 11:5: “But every woman who prays or prophesies with her [spiritual] head [man] uncovered [i.e. unveiled, in view, regarded, etc.] dishonors her [spiritual] head [man]….”

in other words
In Other Words….
  • Man must pray and prophesy with full awareness that Jesus is his Head and Mediator
  • Woman must pray and prophesy with full awareness that while man is her head, he is not her Mediator. She must pray and prophesy without man in view. She must not allow man to come between her and God
arguments against spiritual head position
Arguments Against Spiritual Head Position
  • On its face, this interpretation seems “strained”
  • This is not the way this passage has been interpreted historically
  • It is not impossible for the same term to mean different things in the same context
same term different meaning
Same Term – Different Meaning
  • Jn. 3:8: The wind [pneuma] blows where it wishes, and you hear the sound of it, but cannot tell where it comes from and where it goes. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit [pneuma].”
  • Rom. 8:9: “But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit [human spirit (?)], if indeed the Spirit of God [Holy Spirit] dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, [attitude], he is not His.”
what does spirit mean romans 8
What Does “Spirit” Mean?(Romans 8)
  • The Holy Spirit (8:11, 14, 16)
  • The human spirit (8:4 [?], 5 [?], 6 [?], 9 [?], 10, 13 [?], 16)
  • An attitude or disposition (8:9 [?], 15)
arguments against spiritual head position1
Arguments Against Spiritual Head Position
  • While Paul refers to the “spiritual head,” he also refers to the “physical head”
  • When a woman’s head is covered, the woman herself is covered
same term different meaning1
Same Term – Different Meaning

Spiritual

Spiritual

Spiritual

1 Cor. 11:3-5:3 But I want you to know that the head of every man is Christ, the head of woman is man, and the head of Christ is God. 4 Every man praying or prophesying, having hishead covered, dishonors his head. 5 But every woman who prays or prophesies with herhead uncovered dishonors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved.

Spiritual

Spiritual

Physical

Physical

PHYSICAL

head spiritual or physical
1 Cor. 11:4: Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dis-honors his head.

1 Cor. 11:7: For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man.

Head: Spiritual Or Physical???
head spiritual or physical1
1 Cor. 11:5: But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved.

1 Cor. 11:6: For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered.

Head: Spiritual Or Physical???
head spiritual or physical2
1 Cor. 11:5: But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dis-honors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved.

1 Cor. 11:13: Judge ye in yourselves: is it seemly that a woman pray unto God unveiled? (ASV, KJV, YLT, Berry’s, Marshall’s)

Head: Spiritual Or Physical???
the nature of prophecy
The Nature Of Prophecy
  • Major Premise: Prophets were men who possessed the gift of prophecy (Acts 2:16-21; 13:1; Eph. 4:8-11)
  • Minor Premise: The gift of prophecy was to edify, exhort and console the church (1 Cor. 14:3-5)
  • Conclusion: Therefore prophets edified, exhorted and consoled the church

Bill Cavender, p. 23

the nature of prophecy1
The Nature Of Prophecy
  • Major Premise: Prophetesses were women who possessed the gift of prophecy (Acts 2:16-21; 21:9; 1 Cor. 11:4-5)
  • Minor Premise: The gift of prophecy was to edify, exhort and console the church (1 Cor. 14:3-5)
  • Conclusion: Therefore prophetesses edified, exhorted and consoled the church

Bill Cavender, pp. 23-24

the nature of prophecy2
The Nature Of Prophecy
  • Major Premise: The gift of prophecy was for the purpose of edifying the church (1 Cor. 14:3-5, 22)
  • Minor Premise: Certain men and women, called prophets and prophetesses, possessed the gift of prophecy (Acts 2:16-21; 13:1; 21:9; 1 Cor. 11:4-5)
  • Conclusion: Therefore prophets and prophetesses edified the church

Bill Cavender, p. 24

the nature of prophecy3
The Nature Of Prophecy
  • Major Premise: The church is composed of both men and women
  • Minor Premise: Prophets and prophetesses edified the church
  • Conclusion: Therefore prophets and prophetesses edified both men and women

Bill Cavender, p. 24

praying or prophesying when not who
Praying Or Prophesying:When, Not Who
  • “Praying” and “prophesying” are participles (i.e. verbal adjectives)
  • A participle is in the predicate position when an article does not precede it
  • In the predicate position, a participle tells when the action of the verb takes place
  • No article precedes “praying” or “prophesying,” so they are in the predicate position
  • “Praying” or “prophesying” tell us WHEN, not WHO

Donahue

the covering and propriety
The Covering And Propriety
  • The priestesses for Aphrodite wore short hair
  • Some of the Corinthians had been immoral before their conversion (1 Cor. 6:9-11)
  • Women are to adorn themselves in what is proper for women professing godliness (1 Tim. 2:8-10)
  • Thus, the covering was worn to distinguish godly women from wicked women

Wayne Wells

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R.C.H. Lenski: “As far as prostitutes are concerned, all the evidence that has been discovered proves that only a few of the very lowest types had shorn or shaven heads. As a class these women endeavored to make themselves as attractive as possible and did their utmost to beautify their hair. We cannot, therefore, accept the idea that is advanced by not a few of the best commentators that in our passage Paul refers to the practice of the prostitutes and intends to tell the Corinthian women that, if they pray or prophesy with uncovered heads, they act the part of a lewd woman.” (Interpretations of I and II Corinthians, p. 439)
slide183
James G. McCarthy: “First, Paul is not talking about women covering their heads in public, but ‘while praying or prophesying.’ He says nothing about their dress while walking the streets of Corinth. “Second, a bare head was not the mark of a woman of ill repute. Bareheaded women were a common sight on the streets of Corinth. Roman and Greek women did not wear veils in public. On the contrary, they were known for their elaborate hairstyles. Married Jewish women did wear veils in public. If a Jewish woman wore no veil, it was assumed she was a virgin, not a prostitute.” (“Biblical Head Covering,” 17)
the person or the occasion
Praying and prophesying men and women?

Being covered while praying or prophesying?

4 Every man who has something on his head while praying or prophesying disgraces his head. 5 But every woman who has her head uncovered while praying or prophesying disgraces her head…. (1 Cor. 11:4-5, NASB)

The Person Or The Occasion?

Not because they pray or prophesy, but when

Andy Mitchell

what does paul mean
What Does Paul Mean?

1 Cor. 11:6: For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered.

  • Being covered is the same as having long hair
  • Being uncovered is different than being shorn or shaved, but just as bad

Donahue

peribolaion covering 1 cor 11 15
Peribolaion = Covering(1 Cor. 11:15)
  • Psa. 147:8: “Who covers the heaven with clouds….”
  • Psa. 71:13: “…Let them be coveredwith reproach and dishonor Who seek my hurt.”
  • Ps 109:29: “…And let them cover themselves with their own disgrace as with a mantle.”
  • Isa. 59:6: “…Nor will they cover themselves with their works….”
  • Ezek. 4:2: “…and heap up a mound against it….”
  • Jer. 15:12: “whereas thy strength is a brazen covering” (not in KJV)
  • Job 23:9: “his (God's) right hand shall encompass me, but I shall not see it (Bagster)
  • Mic. 7:10: “…And shame will cover her….”

Donahue

artificial covering
Artificial Covering
  • Est. 6:12: Haman covered [kata] his head while mourning
  • Num. 5:18: Priest to uncover [apokalupto] the woman’s head
  • Gen. 38:15: Tamar covered [katakalupto] her face
  • Ex. 28:42: Linen breeches to cover [kalupto] nakedness
  • Num. 4:5: Take down the covering veil and cover the ark of the Testimony
  • Ruth 3:4, 7: Ruth uncovered [apokalupto] Boaz’s feet

Donahue

exceptions rules
Exceptions & Rules
  • No work on the Sabbath (Ex. 20:8-11)
    • Priests worked on the Sabbath (Mt. 12:5)
    • Circumcision was performed on the Sabbath (Jn. 7:22-23)
    • Livestock was watered on the Sabbath (Lk. 13:15)
    • Livestock was rescued from a pit on the Sabbath (Lk. 14:5)
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