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Institution of Engineers Pakistan, Rawalpindi - Islamabad Centre, 17 th Dec, 2011 ENERGY MANAGEMENT - SOLUTIONS & CHALLENGES By Engr Arjumund A. Shaikh AKTS Consultants Group - World Bank Former Member Technical - NTC Board Ministry of IT & Telecom ,

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Institution of Engineers Pakistan, Rawalpindi - Islamabad Centre, 17th Dec, 2011




EngrArjumund A. Shaikh

AKTS Consultants Group - World Bank

Former Member Technical - NTC Board Ministry of IT & Telecom,, Ph:92 51 2652121, Cell: 92 300 8552729

em structure packages 17 12 2011 arjumund
EM Structure – Packages 17-12-2011 (arjumund)
  • Energy Scenario
            • Scenario & Perception on Energy crisis
      • Root causes of Crisis ( Linked Energy Saving solutions)
  • Energy Management (EM)
    • Energy Sustainability:
      • Sustainability Objectivew.r.t Role of Building codes
      • Energy Savings Potential Identification: Major Sectors
      • Building Management system(BMS) & Saving Measures
      • Energy Saving in Industry & Assessment Methodology
  • Energy efficient Technologies-Pakistan potential
  • Key Challenges in RET
  • Energy Solutions (short term & Long terms)
  • “Climate Change” Global impact on Energy?
  • Panel Discussion


Our Perception


Cash Bleeding Energy Industry

Sector wise Consumption

(i) Energy Consumption:

  • Industrial Sector: 29.1%
  • Agricultural Sector : 14.3%
  • Commercial Sector: 5.5 %
  • Government Sector: 7.4%
  • House hold : 44.2%

(ii)Cost per Kwh in Rupees from:

Terbala: 0.71, Ghazi Broatha: 1.16, Basha: 4.95

Rental: 16+

worldwide oil reserves world energy book
Worldwide Oil Reserves-- WorldEnergy Book
  • Peak of oil production expected: 2010-2030.
  • World oil economic depletion: 2035-2084
  • BUT: Oil use is growing: 18%

Energy Crisis Reasons & Root causes

  • Financial Constraints
  • Strategic Planning and Technical Failures
  • Lack of Investments

Solution through

Energy Management

cash bleeding sector financail
Cash bleeding Sector: FINANCAIL
  • Excessive Line Losses/Y: RS 40 B
  • Loss due to Slow Bill Recovery/Y: RS 80 B
  • Late Payment Surcharge to IPP/M:RS 24 B
  • Fuel adjustment Charge Loss/Y: RS 24 B
  • Decrease supply of Gas to P. H/Y: RS 72 B
  • Soaring Circular debt: RS 300 B
  • PSO Arrears: RS 165 B
  • No heed to recover outstanding: RS 300 BRS 1000B
technical poor planning
TECHNICAL: Poor Planning

1. Short GasSupply to Power/ Industry : (Reported)

    • Power sector ( IPP &Nuclear): 28% (against 43%)
    • Industry: 26% (against 39%)
    • Fertilizers: 14%
    • Domestic: 17%

2. GAS Short fall:

  • Unaccounted for Gas (UFG) Pipe Loss increased to 26%;
  • Gas surcharge : not spent on Infra- Development;
  • Foreign Investment declined: Decrease in supplies;

3. GAS Crisis in Textile Industry means:

  • Rs 8 B /year TAXdecrease ;
  • Currency printing for Economy: increased inflation;
  • $14 B Export, $15 B Jobs at Stake-;

(Industry priority)

technical cont
TECHNICAL: cont --
  • Resource exploitation- Poor Planning :
  • ENERGY POTENTIAL: (Nepra site)
    • Hydel Potential: 48,000 MW( India 35%, SriLanka 60%, Pak 16%) slide
    • Coal Potential : 20,000 MW ( China 70%, India 56%, Pak 0.11 %) slide
    • Nuclear Energy: 8,8000 MW ( 690 MW)
    • Wind power Potential: 346,000 MW ( 170 MW against 2850 MW by 2015)
    • Solar Power Potential: 2.9 Million MW ( 80 MW against 1600 MW by 2015)
    • Non Implementation of Long Term Power Generation (Rental Power)
    • Low water levels , Dams De-silting, Water for irrigation, Stolen water etc
    • Mismanagement: (Nandipur & Chhichokimalian )
  • Load Survey-Industry, A/C,T-wells Demand Forecast (14%) ;
  • High transmission & Electric Distribution Losses;
  • Dormant : Energy Conservation/Saving(Ration, Rotation);
  • Incompetency: Lacking decisions, Administrative Lethargyslide
  • Imbalance in Energy Mix (Priorities); slide
energy management statement
Energy Management-Statement

Various studies recommend that Energy sector be driven by two policy considerations: (i) Energy efficiency and (ii) good governance. This objective is met by improvements in energy efficiency and energy efficient technologies that minimize adverse impacts on the environment;

  • Definition: It is a Program to rationalize energy use, reduce consumption, cut energy costs & carbon emissions and ensure implementation;
  • Watt” saved is a “Watt” generated, Better, to much cheaper to save, than to generate a “Watt”;
  • This means to identifying the areas of wasteful use of Energy & taking steps to reduce the waste to a bare minimum.
energy saving potential enercon
  • Building: 30%
  • Industry : 25%
  • Agriculture: 20%
  • Transport: 30%

On Average 26%

  • Achievable saving for Pakistan estimated through EE/EC: Over $ 3.2 Billion / year

(E.M .Program features )

building management system bms
Building Management System (BMS)
  • BMS is an energy efficient Web-based platform Building system to provide:
  • Integration: Geographically dispersed sites with one N/W
  • Intelligent integration: HVAC, Access Control, CCTV, Lighting, Energy Management subsystems etc 
  • Acknowledge and review alarms with alarm processing and routing, e-mail paging etc
  • Serve platform for N/Ws control, monitoring, alarming, database and log management of all building functions 
  • Serve cost-effective infrastructure for convergence with IT networks

(Smart Building)

building codes greatest potential
Building Codes-greatest potential

Building codes cover Energy efficiency aspects of Buildings:

  • Heating, Ventilation, air-conditioning(HVAC) subsystem
    • Lighting, Insulation, Glazing subsystem
    • Power and distribution subsystem
    • Pumping subsystems.
  • Energy, Domestic Appliances & Security Standards
  • Benefits of Energy Codes practices :
    • Assists in Energy Saving/ Conservation, Lowers Energy Bills of users
    • Helps Save investment in Power generation
    • Extends equipment life and reduces Maintenance cost
    • Carbon Credits Claims: due emission reduction from Conservation
    • Beneficial to National Budget and Economy
  • Based on aboveconsiderations &abnormallyhigh losses, the answer does not lie in increasing supply but from better Energy management- to deliver more at Lower cost;
  • Buildings,Consumer behaviour and transport offer the greatest potential for energy efficiency (EE)
energy management energy audit
  • Energy Management(EM) Policy: provides sense of direction to the Program and fixes Energy standards of Manufacturing, System performance and Environments;
  • Methodology: Conducting Energy performance Audit and Framework of Recommendations for energy efficiency ;
  • Monitoring: It is foundation On which EM is built by interviewing, Examining energy profile, usage, energy costs, M/c load, Data col
  • Training & Motivating Staff: Energy awareness and change in attitude and behavior. Education is Keys to the success to EM;
  • Benchmarking: Means to Fixing indicators of Energy, Buildings, Environment, Industry/Industry services, Domestic Appliances;
  • Reporting: Briefing, Recommendations,Implementation, Review;
  • Analysis: E.M is continuous process of improvement performance, targets to be regularly evaluated.
typical energy saving areas in industrial sector
Typical Energy Saving Areas: in Industrial Sector
  • Energy Savings and Electric Motors, HVAC Controls
  • Energy Savings and Compressed Air Systems
  • Energy Savings and Steam Generation
  • Boilers
  • Energy Savings in Steam Distribution Systems
  • Energy Savings and Furnaces
  • Energy Savings Through Heat Recovery
  • Energy Savings Through Cogeneration
  • Industry Regulatory Measures, producing Energy Saving:
    • energy performance standards
    • building codes for the New Buildings
    • Regulatory environment conditions (CO2 )
problems identified energy audit
Problems identified-Energy Audit
  • Absence of Energy Management systems,
  • Lack of top management commitment,
  • Energy performance codes for Equipment- (compressors, cooling, towers, boilers, pumps and fans)
  • Lack of awareness about savings potential,
  • Lack of data, and problems of benchmarking.
  • Shortage of quality energy professionals.
  • Training in Energy efficient Program initiatives
  • Realization of Potential Savings



the need for renewable energy
The Need for Renewable Energy

Projected Depletion of Current Fuels

  • OIL Reserves –41 Years
  • Natural Gas –40 Years
  • Coal –164 Years
renewable energy
  • Solar
  • Wind Mills
  • Biogas
  • Geothermal
  • Wave Energy
  • Biomass
  • Bio fuel
  • Hydropower
solar pv status
Solar PV –Status

Potential of Renewable Energy:10,000 MW

Solar installed (for lighting & water pumping ):200

  • Capacity varies bet: 200–500 W.
  • Total PV generation capacity: 80 kW.
  • Number of Solar water heaters:100
wind energy
Wind Energy
  • 40% of the Wind resource is in UK
  • China Number One in Wind
  • Wind Power Potential:50,000 MW
  • Wind turbine capacity: 0.5-1.5kw Issues: Land, Storage, Maint, Availablity
  • Types of wind turbine:

-Horizontal axis Turbines

-Vertical Axis Turbines

  • Wind turbines installed : 1300 (for 430 Coastal houses)
aedb pcret biogas

(i) Number of Biogas cook stoves distributed by PCRET with annual financial savings of fuel wood worth of Rs. 86 million (US$ 1 million): 90,000.

(ii) Number of Biogas plants installed, for meeting domestic fuel needs of households: 1600 Plants

  • Number of Plants installed by AEDB : 1,200 for domestic needs in the rural area of the Punjab province.
  • Capacity of bet 5-15 cubic meters per day.
  • Annual biogas generation capacity: 2.5 million m3.
  • Foundation for Integrated Development Action (FIDA) & RSPN constructed : 2047
  • Initiative for Rural and Sustainable Development (IRSD) & UNSP: 150



Renewable Energy




(a) Well defined Renewable Energy policy

(b) No technical and Quality standards

(c) Cash Flow and funds Availability on target;

(d) Non-operational One window : Site availability,

administrative lethargy, delays in approvals;

(e) Training needs, capacity building of Stakeholders ;

(f) Community participation with overall responsibility

supported by well equipped Workshop for O& M;

(g) Absence of Regulatory Authority for RET

(h) Pilot projects a model for launching a larger program;

–RE Tariffs and Feed-in tariffs,

– Tax, Carbon credits, Import duties Sales tax,

– Creation of Renewable energy funds and R&D

(I)Lack of political will and EE incentives-greatest barriers





Short Term solution/measures
  • Capacity utilization by Overhauling & Capacity addition;
  • Energy Mix Policy Focus: Coal, Hydel and Renewable Energy
  • Encourage Investment: Law N order improvement;
  • Energy Policy: Investment friendly/ Power supply Priority/ incentives to users/ low interest finances & Access to credit to farmers/ Competent Professionals/Private sector Participation/ Awareness campaign etc;
  • Top most Priority: Renewable Energy Technologies
  • Energy efficiency /Saving Measures: Legislation needed LongTerm solution/Measures
  • Coal reserve (33 Trillion tons) & HydelEnergy Exploitation
  • Rehabilitation of outdated Transmission & distribution
  • Infrastructure Augmentation/Upgrading and Development
  • Better Urban Planning and Deployment of Transport
  • Government’s creditability & Agencies facilitation
costs of climate change impact on energy
Costs of Climate Change: Impact on Energy

World Bank Studies reveal that:

  • 40% of development aid investment is at risk from climate change
  • Humanitarian costs could rise by 200% by 2015
  • “Weather disasters” could cost as much as a trillion dollars in a single year- by 2040
  • Projects Review cost of climate change estimates to be between 5-20% of global GDP;
cpd propsed program series 2012
  • Engineering Project Management
  • Change Management and Organization Development
  • Project Human Resource Management
  • Total Quality Management
  • Project Scheduling Techniques
  • Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Interpersonal Communication Skills for Engineers
  • Disaster Management: Role of ICTs
  • Renewable Energy alternatives- Way forward
  • Renewable Energy Resources-Road to sustainable Growth
  • Meeting the Energy demands-Viable options
  • Promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies through Private sector participation
  • Energy Efficient solutions-Way forward
  • Overview of Bio-Energy
energy codes
Energy Codes
  • Energy Codes Benefits:

– Lower Energy Bills

– Reduce Need for New

– Environmental Benefits

  • Energy Codes include

– Lighting

– Insulation

– Glazing

– Heating and Cooling Equipment

– Other Energy Efficiency Measures

  • Legal coverage & Stringent implementation measures with close cooperation of Civic bodies
sustainable energy objectives
Sustainable Energy-Objectives
  • Objectives :
    • Sufficient availability: On demand over the period,
    • Cost-efficient: Oil price index portrays increasing complexity in forecasting the future trend. Should not Lacks in security;
    • Environmentally friendly: largely affected by increase in temperature and green houses gases have cruel impact on future developments;
    •  Complies with: International standards in energy efficiency , Technology and environment;
    • Compatibility: Working with a common hardware and Energy software platform.
energy savings building
Energy Savings - Building
  • Envelope materials focus on developing improved insulation of walls and roofing materials;
  • Windows and Doors : contribute significantly to the whole building design forming heating and air conditioning loads;
  • Ventilation in Buildings; Improving air efficiency and air flow ducts;
  • Solid-state lighting (SSL- LEDs & Organic OLEDs) technology, having potential to cut lighting energy usage, contributing significantly to climate change solutions.
biomass energy
  • Biomass: Consists of the organic material that makes up living organisms
  • Biomass Energy: From plant and animal matter, such as charcoal, wood, manure, crops. These can be burned to generate heat or electricity
  • Biomass Fuels: some biomass can be converted into fuels:
    • Ethanol: from fermentation (corn) -can be added to gasoline and used in “Flex-Fuel” cars
    • Biodiesel: from vegetable oil, grease, animal fat-mixed with ethanol, used in diesel engines