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Wine Faults 1)Oxidation 2) Microbiological - Candida -…. 3)Sulfur Compounds -mercaptaans - … -… 4) Environmental - Excess sulfur -…… -…... Oxidation Most Common Wine Fault Can Occur Throughout the Process Good effects- soften red wines Generally bad: loss of color

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wine faults

Wine Faults

1)Oxidation

2) Microbiological

- Candida

-….

3)Sulfur Compounds

-mercaptaans

- …

-…

4) Environmental

-Excess sulfur

-……

-…...

oxidation

Oxidation

Most Common Wine Fault

Can Occur Throughout the Process

Good effects- soften red wines

Generally bad: loss of color

bad flavors and aroma

slide3

Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Ethyl acetate

1) Acetaldehyde -ethanol oxidation catalyses by an enzyme (Fermentation)

Sensory Threshold o.1 g/l STRAW like flavors or SHERRY Character

Off color Brown tints

2) Acetic acid (VA) - Bacteria and oxygen (ML fermentation)

Sensory Threshold o.2 g/l ( Table vinegar 50g/l)

Table vinegar taste Off color Brown tints

3) Ethyl Acetate (VA) Reaction between ethanol and acetic acid ( unsound grapes)

common ester in wines

Sensory Threshold o.2 g/l <ST adds sweetness >ST Nail polish or Varnish

prevention

PREVENTION

1)Use Clean Fruit

2)Chose Low VA Producing Yeast

3)Protect Fermenting Wine

4)Minimize Wine Exposure to Air (Racking)

5)Keep Carboys and Barrels Topped Off

6) Keep Containers Sealed (Tight and clean - stoppers, bungs & waterseals)

7)Maintain Proper SO2 levels

SO2

50ppm on unsound fruit

50ppm in first rack

25ppm at each following rack

50 ppm free at bottling (Measure as necessary)

treatment low levels

Treatmentlow Levels

1) Add 100ppm SO2

2) Potassium Caseinate

(Skim milk powder)

3) Blend (very low levels)

4) Referment