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WELD TESTING. DESTRUCTIVE AND NON-DESTRUCTIVE. DESTRUCTIVE TESTING . These can be divided into two parts, Tests capable of being performed in the workshop. Laboratory tests. microscopic-macroscopic , chemical and corrosive. REASONS.

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Weld testing

WELDTESTING


Destructive and non destructive
DESTRUCTIVE AND NON-DESTRUCTIVE


Destructive testing
DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

  • These can be divided into two parts,

  • Tests capable of being performed in the workshop.

  • Laboratory tests.

    • microscopic-macroscopic , chemical and corrosive.


Reasons
REASONS

  • Defects occur during welding which affect the quality and hardness of the plate

  • Other defects occur through lack of knowledge of and skill of the welder

  • For the training of welders


Workshop tests
WORKSHOP TESTS

TENSILE BENDING

IMPACT HARDNES

FATIGUE CRACKING


Tensile
TENSILE

Material is sectioned and edges rounded of to prevent cracking.

Punch marks are made to see elongation.



Bend testing
BEND TESTING

  • Shows

    Physical condition of the weld

    Determine welds efficiency

    • Tensile strength

    • Ductility

    • Fusion and penetration


Bend test
BEND TEST

  • Bend through 180O

  • the specimen should be a minimum of 30mm wide

  • The fulcrums diameter is 3x thickness of the plate

  • The bottom rollers have a distance of the diameter of the former + 2.2 times the thickness of the plate

  • Upper and lower surfaces ground or filed flat and edges rounded off.

  • the tests should be one against the root -another against the face ,and in some cases a side bend.





Impact
IMPACT

  • CHARPY AND IZOD

  • Gives the toughness and shock loading of the material and weld at varying temperatures with a notch such as under cut

  • The measurement is the energy required to to break a specimen with a given notch

  • 2mm depth at a 45obevel or a “U” notch.






Hardness tests
HARDNESS TESTS.

  • This gives the metals ability to show resistance to indentation which show it’s resistance to wear and abrasion.

  • The tests are

    • Brinell

    • Rockwell

    • Vickers diamond pyramid

    • Scleroscope



Fatigue
FATIGUE

  • the testing of Material that is subject to fluctuating loads

  • HAIGH Electro magnetic tester.

  • W’O’HLER Uses rotating chuck with weight


Cracking
CRACKING

  • REEVES Test study the hardening and cracking of welds.

  • The compatibility of electrodes for the metal being joined.


Cracking1
CRACKING

  • Three Sides Are Welded With Known Compatible Electrodes.

  • The front edge is welded with the test electrode.

  • if incompatible it will crack.


Microscopic
MICROSCOPIC

  • Used to determine the actual structure of the weld and parent metal

  • Up to 50,000 times magnification with an electron beam microscope

  • Polishing must be of a very high standard


Macroscopic
MACROSCOPIC

  • Examined using a magnifying glass .

  • magnification from 2 to 20 time.

  • it will show up slag entrapment or cracks .

  • polishing not as high as micro.


Etching reagents
ETCHING REAGENTS

  • These are acids used to show up different structures in metals

  • For steels the most common is “1-2 % nitric acid in distilled water or alcohol.

  • Aluminum uses a solution of 10-20%caustic soda in water




Visual

While welding

The rate the electrode melts

The way the weld metal flows

Sound of the arc

The light given of

After welding

Under cut

Lack of root fusion

Any pin holes from gas or slag

Amount of spatter

Dimensions of weld

VISUAL


Dye penetrants
DYE PENETRANTS

  • These are an aid to visual inspection

  • Will only find surface defects

  • Use correct type



Dye penetrants2
DYE PENETRANTS

  • Types

    • Red

    • Flouresant

  • CAUTION

    • Oil based

    • Water washable



Magnetic particle
MAGNETIC PARTICLE

  • Mainly for surface defects

  • Some sub surface defects can be found

  • Only ferrous metal


Acoustics
ACOUSTICS

Striking with a rounded object

Ringing tone if no defect

Tone changes when object is cracked


Application of a load
APPLICATION OF A LOAD

  • Used to test pressure vessels

  • Pipe lines

  • The item for testing is filled with water or oil it is then pressurised using a pump

  • A safety valve is set 1.5 to 2 times below the working pressure.



Radiographic
RADIOGRAPHIC

X-RAY

GAMMA RAY

Electro magnetic radiation of short duration

Both of these methods are a danger to health



X ray viewer
X-RAY VIEWER

Pictures taken are viewed as negatives

will only give flat image not in three dimensional

darkened area must be used for viewing


Ultrasonic testing

This uses high pitched sound

The sound will not pass through an air gap so bounces back and is picked up on a receiver

The reader is a oscilloscope

ULTRASONIC TESTING



This is the end of the lesson
THIS IS THE END OF THE LESSON

  • ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS