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Vertebrata. Class Amphibia. Amphibian Characteristics. Ectothermic tetrapods Respiration by lungs, gills, or skin Skin moist containing mucous glands, and lacking scales Development includes larval stage prior to metamorphosis Includes the frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians.

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Vertebrata

Vertebrata

Class Amphibia


Amphibian characteristics
Amphibian Characteristics

  • Ectothermic tetrapods

  • Respiration by lungs, gills, or skin

  • Skin moist containing mucous glands, and lacking scales

  • Development includes larval stage prior to metamorphosis

    • Includes the frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians



Amphibian skeleton
Amphibian Skeleton

  • Axial skeleton

    • Skull

    • Vertebral Column

  • Appendicular Skeleton

    • Pectoral Girdle and Forelimbs

    • Pelvic Girdle and Hindlimbs


Skull bones and structures to know

Pterygoid

Dentary

Squamosal

Frontoparietal

Nasal

Maxilla

Vomer

Occipital condyle

Orbital fossa

Nasal fossa

Skull Bones and Structures to Know

Bones:

Structures:



Vertebrae structures
Vertebrae Structures

  • Transverse Process

  • Neural Spine

  • Articular Process

  • Body

  • Vertebral Foramen




Pectoral girdle bones
Pectoral Girdle Bones

  • Suprascapula

  • Scapula

  • Clavicle

  • Coracoid


Pelvic girdle bones
Pelvic Girdle Bones

  • Illium

  • Ischium

  • Pubis


Forelimb bones
Forelimb Bones

  • Humerus

  • Radioulna

  • Carpals

  • Metacarpals

  • Phalanges

  • Prepolux


Hindlimb bones
Hindlimb Bones

  • Femur

  • Tibiofibula

  • Tarsals

  • Metatarsals

  • Phalanges

  • Prehallux


Sternum bones
Sternum Bones

  • Episternum

  • Omosternum

  • Epicoracoid

  • Mesosternum

  • Xiphisternum


Skeletal muscular system
Skeletal Muscular System

  • Trunk Muscles

  • Thigh Muscles

  • Shank Muscles




Ventral trunk muscles
Ventral Trunk Muscles

  • Pectoralis

  • Rectus abdominus

  • External oblique

  • Transversus (= internal oblique)


Dorsal trunk muscles
Dorsal Trunk Muscles

  • Longissimus dorsi

  • Coccygeoiliacus


Muscles of head shoulder upper arm
Muscles of Head, Shoulder, Upper Arm

  • Depressor mandibularis

  • Dorsalis scapulae

  • Latissimus dorsi

  • Triceps brachii

  • Deltoid

  • Sternoradialis


Ventral muscles of thigh
Ventral Muscles of Thigh

  • Sartorius

  • Adductor magnus

  • Gracilis major

  • Graciilis minor

  • Adductor longus


Dorsal muslces of thigh
Dorsal Muslces of Thigh

  • Triceps femoris

  • Semimembranosus

  • Gluteus

  • Piriformis


Muscles of shank
Muscles of Shank

  • Gastrocnemius

  • Peroneus

  • Tibialis anticus longus

  • Extensor cruris

  • Tibialis anticus brevis

  • Tibialis posticus







Veins

External jugular

Innominate

Subclavian

Anterior vena cava

Sinus venosus

Posterior vena cava

Hepatic vein

Hepatic portal

Gastric vein

Intestinal veins

Splenic vein

Ventral abdominal vein

Urinogenital vein

Renal portal vein

Femoral vein

Pelvic vein

Veins


Arteries

Conus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus

Carotid arch

Systemic arch

Pulmocutaneous arch

Dorsal aorta

Celiacomesenteric artery

Celiac artery

Anterior mesenteric artery

Hepatic artery

Splenic artery

Intestinal artery

Uninogenital arteries

Common iliac arteries

Arteries



Parts of the frog heart
Parts of the Frog Heart

  • Right atrium

  • Left atrium

  • ventricle


Mammalian heart sheep heart
Mammalian Heart(sheep heart)


Parts of the sheep heart

Right atrium

Left atrium

Right ventricle

Left ventricle

Tricuspid valve

Semilunar valve

Bicuspid valve

Aorta

Precava

Pulmonary artery

Pulmonary vein

Parts of the Sheep Heart




Parts of the frog brain

Olfactory nerve

Olfactory lobe

Cerebrum

Optic nerve

Optic lobe

Cerebellum

Medula oblongata

Spinal cord

Parts of the Frog Brain