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Understanding Patterns of Fishery Production in Coastal Marine Ecosystems Impacted by Hypoxia. Edward J. Chesney 1 , Donald M. Baltz 2 and Theodore S. Switzer 3 1 Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium 2Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Louisiana State Univ.

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understanding patterns of fishery production in coastal marine ecosystems impacted by hypoxia
Understanding Patterns of Fishery Production in Coastal Marine Ecosystems Impacted by Hypoxia

Edward J. Chesney1, Donald M. Baltz2 and Theodore S. Switzer3

1 Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium

2Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Louisiana State Univ.

3Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute

slide2
Eutrophic systems are among the most productive marine systems for fishery production
  • All ecosystems do not respond to eutrophication in the same ways because of differences in the characteristics of the systems.
  • All species of nekton are not affected to the same degree by environmental impacts in spite of strong overlap in the habitats they occupy.
in terms of ecosystem function what combination of factors dictates vulnerability to eutrophication
In terms of ecosystem function what combination of factors dictates vulnerability to eutrophication?
  • How do those factors compare among large eutrophic marine systems
slide6

Factor 4

Green Low or no % suboxic (open)

Yellow Moderate

Red High % suboxic (mostly enclosed)

Baltic

High Latitude

Slow Turn

Black Sea

Wadden Sea

Factor 3

N.Adriatic

LIS

Chesapeake

Seto

High Flow

Strong perm.

Stratification

Large

nGOM

Mobile

Low Latitude

Fast Turn

Factor 2

Delaware

Deep Low PP Large Closed

Low Flow

Weak&seasonal

Stratification

Small

Factor 1

Shallow High PP Small Open

Large marine systems impacted by nutrients

Large marine systems impacted by nutrients

what species of nekton are most likely to be severely impacted by hypoxia
What species of nekton are most likely to be severely impacted by hypoxia?
  • Those species with life histories and habitat requirements that chronically affected or have multiple stages of their life history affected increase risks.
  • Refuges from hypoxia reduce risks at the population level.
slide8

Evaluated 52 species of nekton for their potential risks associated with the formation of hypoxia based on their life history characteristics

  • Principal adult habitat
    • Estuary, inshore (0-5m), nearshore (5-25m), offshore (25-200m)
  • Principal nursery habitat
  • Spawning season
  • Spawning location
  • Foraging habits
    • Benthos, piscivorous, omnivorous
  • Water column distribution
    • Demersal, epi-demersal, pelagic, nektonic
  • Other habitat characteristics
    • Reef associated, marsh associated
unraveling the effects of hypoxia
Unraveling the Effects of Hypoxia
  • In response to hypoxia, nekton may move:
    • Vertically
    • Alongshore
    • Inshore/offshore
  • Estuary
  • Inshore (0-5m)
  • Nearshore (5-25m)
  • Offshore (25-200m)
pca of life history characteristics of 52 species of nekton ngom

Variable

Factor 1

Factor 2

Factor 3

Principal Nursery Habitat

0.86174

0.09371

-0.12820

Principal Adult Habitat

0.71291

-0.50409

-0.10680

Foraging Habits

0.68231

-0.02719

0.35962

Spawning Habitat

0.54615

-0.71573

-0.10960

Spawning Season

0.15489

0.87953

-0.15766

Water Column Distribution

-0.00666

-0.05685

0.93495

Eigenvalues

2.0386989

1.5526919

1.0681789

% Variance explained

33.98

25.88

17.80

Cumulative % variance explained

33.98

59.86

77.66

PCA of life history characteristics of 52 species of nekton (nGOM)
slide11

BA=bay anchovy, GM=gulf menhaden, Ca=sand seatrout, AC=Atlantic croaker, HC=hardhead catfish, S=spot, AB=Atlantic bumper, AT=Atlantic threadfin, FF=fringed flounder, SP=silver perch, C=cutlassfish, LP=least puffer, H=hogchoker, AM=Atlantic moonfish, SK=southern kingfish, LS=lined sole, SF=southern flounder, BT=blackcheek tonguefish, SS=spotted seatrout, SD=star drum, GB=gulf butterfish, SM=Spanish mackerel, Cn=silver seatrout, WS=white shrimp, BS=brown shrimp, BC=blue crab, RS=red snapper, Rc=cobia, KM=king mackerel, RD=red drum, Cf=Atlantic spadefish, BW = bay whiff, Sg=shoal flounder, AS=Atlantic stingray, Da= southern stingray, CR=cownose ray, P=pinfish, SA=striped anchovy, Al=shortfin anchovy, MS=mantis shrimp, Lb= brief squid, Mm=stone crab, Sc=longspined porgy, IL=inshore lizardfish, Ps=shortwing searobin, Pa=harvestfish, BR=blue runner.

Demersal

Water Column Distribution

Summer Estuary

Pelagic

Spawning Season & Habitat

Offshore

Winter Offshore

Principal Adult & Nursery Habitat

Estuary

slide13

Demersal

Water Column Distribution

Summer Estuary

Pelagic

Spawning Season & Habitat

Offshore

Estuary

MS=mantis shrimp

SD=star drum

BC=blue crab

Da= southern stingray

AS=Atlantic stingray

H=hogchoker

BT=blackcheek tonguefish

LS=lined sole

Mm=stone crab

Sg=shoal flounder

SP=silver perch

BA=bay anchovy, GM=gulf menhaden, Ca=sand seatrout, AC=Atlantic croaker, HC=hardhead catfish, S=spot, AB=Atlantic bumper, AT=Atlantic threadfin, FF=fringed flounder, SP=silver perch, C=cutlassfish, LP=least puffer, H=hogchoker, AM=Atlantic moonfish, SK=southern kingfish, LS=lined sole, SF=southern flounder, BT=blackcheek tonguefish, SS=spotted seatrout, SD=star drum, GB=gulf butterfish, SM=Spanish mackerel, Cn=silver seatrout, WS=white shrimp, BS=brown shrimp, BC=blue crab, RS=red snapper, Rc=cobia, KM=king mackerel, RD=red drum, Cf=Atlantic spadefish, BW = bay whiff, Sg=shoal flounder, AS=Atlantic stingray, Da= southern stingray, CR=cownose ray, P=pinfish, SA=striped anchovy, Al=shortfin anchovy, MS=mantis shrimp, Lb= brief squid, Mm=stone crab, Sc=longspined porgy, IL=inshore lizardfish, Ps=shortwing searobin, Pa=harvestfish, BR=blue runner.

Winter Offshore

Principal Adult & Nursery Habitat

slide14
Coastal species of the nGOM with economic or ecological significance & moderate risks of being affected by hypoxia
slide15
Coastal species of the nGOM with economic or ecological significance & lower risks of being affected by hypoxia
how can we fine tune these risks assessments
How can we fine tune these risks assessments?
  • Directed studies of species at risks
  • Additional analyses based upon fisheries data
  • Modeling
seamap data
SEAMAP Data

Mississippi

Louisiana

Texas

subdivided coastal zone

WLA

CLA

ETX

WTX

Hypoxia

Subdivided coastal zone
  • Five alongshore zones:WTX , ETX, WLA, CLA, ELA/MS
  • Intensity of hypoxia determined by areal extent (Rabalais et al.):
    • Low (0 – 9,500 km2)
    • Moderate (9,500 – 16,000 km2)
    • Severe (16,000 + km2)
star drum
Star Drum

Source: FishBase (US FWS)

  • Similar patterns in summer/fall
  • Abundances highest in inshore WLA waters
  • Some differences with respect to intensity of hypoxia
rock sea bass
Rock Sea Bass

Source: FishBase (D. Flescher)

  • Abundances in nearshore CLA decrease with increasing hypoxia
  • Abundances in adjacent zones increase with intensity of hypoxia (dependent on season)
de leiva moreno et al 2000
De Leiva Moreno et al 2000
  • Advocated calculating the ratio of pelagics to demersals as an indicator of system condition in eutrophied coastal systems.
how does this compare to troubled coastal seas impacted by eutrophication
How does this compare to troubled coastal Seas Impacted by Eutrophication?

P/D<1.0=Oligotrophic

P/D>10=Eutrophic

pelagic to demersal ratio 1950 2004 for the fertile crescent ngom
Pelagic to Demersal Ratio 1950-2004 for the Fertile Crescent nGOM

Data Source: NOAA Fisheries Statistics

conclusions
Conclusions
  • A simple risk assessment framework might be a useful tool for evaluating relative risks from hypoxia.
  • Simple metrics to index the condition of the ecosystem may not be adequate because no two ecosystems (nor their fauna) are likely to respond exactly the same to nutrient inputs because of variations among the characteristics of ecosystems.
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Funding provided by NOAA Coastal Ocean Program
  • Data:
    • National Marine Fisheries Service
    • Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries
    • Mississippi Department of Marine Resources
    • Texas Parks and Wildlife