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Thomas Jefferson High School Student Water Action Team It Rains, it Pours, it Floods!!! Lakes and Dams: Their Uses and Effects By Desirae Luera May 10, 2003 Lakes and Dams A dam is used to impound water by blocking its flow through a watershed

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slide1

Thomas Jefferson High School

Student Water Action Team

it rains it pours it floods

It Rains, it Pours, it Floods!!!

Lakes and Dams: Their Uses and Effects

By Desirae Luera

May 10, 2003

lakes and dams
Lakes and Dams
  • A dam is used to impound water by blocking its flow through a watershed
  • Lakes impound water out of basins such as rivers, rain, and melting snow
  • Many lakes are used as a municipal water resource
  • Some lakes are used as water supplies for irrigation, electric power, recreation and more
benefits of lake ecosystems
Benefits of Lake Ecosystems
  • Water provides for diversified vertebrate and invertebrate inhabitants
  • Water provides habitat for land birds and water fowl
  • Water released from a dam lets fish and other wildlife animals live in the stream below
  • Aquatic plants provide food and habitat for diversified creatures
  • Lakes provide a recreational area for human use
types of dams
Types of dams
  • Buttress Dams
  • Roller Dams
  • Embankment or Rock-fill Dams
  • Concrete Dams
  • Gravity Dams
  • Arch Dams
early history
Early History
  • The earliest dams were built in North America providing water for gristmills and saw mills and other manufacturing productions
  • Dams brought electric service to remote areas and water to arid regions
  • Dams historically provided water for irrigation and human use and were sometimes located far from the city
  • Dams were also used for recreation and the tourist industry
  • Dams were used to abate flooding in rural and urban areas
manufacturing processes
Manufacturing Processes
  • Dams with the water impounded were used to turn water wheels
  • Dams also were used to turn grinding wheels and in the manufacture of grain flower
  • Dams also were used to turn saw mill blades creating a source of power for the logging industry
electric power
Electric Power
  • Some lakes are created as storage reservoirs for generating electric power
  • Hydroelectric power plants make use of force of water to make it possible
  • Stored water flows through hydraulic turbines for electric power,and water generation
irrigation uses
Irrigation Uses
  • Farmers used dams and force water into fields of crops
  • Farmers shared water from dams with surrounding ranches to water their livestock
  • Farmers used pumps to force water into an overhead system of water sprinklers
  • Farmers used stock ponds to release water into streams allowing other wildlife to grow
recreation and tourist industry benefits
Recreation and Tourist Industry Benefits
  • Motor boats and sail boats are used for recreation
  • Increased water flow from dams to rivers below is used for tourist activities downstream
  • Reservoirs generate millions of dollars in local recreational economy
  • Hotels are built near to house visitors and tourist
dams used for flood control
Dams Used for Flood Control
  • Early dams used to impound water during heavy rains so that irrigated fields were not washed out
  • In the Urban areas, dams were used to catch water flow from streets, paved areas and parking lots
  • Early dams were used to impound water during floods and maintain it for future use
olmos dam san antonio s guardian

Olmos Dam: San Antonio’s Guardian

Protecting San Antonio since 1926 to the present from flooding

flood history of san antonio
Flood History of San Antonio
  • Historical records showed that the floods of 1724, 1819, 1865, 1899, 1913, and 1921 were particularly destructive. 
  • In 1865 the removal of in-channel dams and the enlargement bridges increased the potential of flood damage in the downtown area
  • In 1911 a diversion channel was created to carry storm water away from the downtown horseshoe bend
  • In 1920 an engineering study on flood prevention to the City of San Antonio was done
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Flood of 1921

  • Sept. 9 1921, Alazan and Apache Creeks and the San Antonio River flooded due to a 6.8 in. rain.
  • 50 people died, 14 others were missing and 2000 were given aid by the Red Cross
  • Flood damage and devastation caused renewed calls for flood control dams at Olmos Creek and in the Woodlawn Area.

EARLY SAN ANTONIO RIVER

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Arial View of San Antonio

Olmos Dam catches all the storm water runoff from the area north of the dam.

building of olmos dam
Building of Olmos Dam
  • Olmos Dam was the first major step in flood control. It was built in 1926 and then rebuilt in 1980.
  • In 1929, the flood loop, Great Bend, was isolated and completed in 1941.
about olmos dam
About Olmos Dam
  • Owner - city of San Antonio
  • Location - Olmos Creek
  • Drained area - 32 sq. mi.
  • Type - concrete
  • Length - 1,941 ft.
  • height - 60 ft.
  • Top width - 12 ft.
  • Roadway width - 24 ft.
average rainfall of the two floods in san antonio
Average Rainfall of the Two Floods in San Antonio
  • During the 1921 Flood there was 6.83 inches of rain
  • During the 1998 Flood, there was 11.26 inches of rain.
  • Due to such flood control, there was less flood damage in the downtown area but the Olmos Park area was flooded.
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LAKES AND DAMS

  • There are many reasons to build reservoir;
  • For irrigation
  • Economics
  • Recreation
  • Tourism
  • Flood control
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WE NEED REMEMBER:

AS WATER FLOWS OVER OUR HANDS, MAY WE USE THEM SKILLFULLY TO PRESERVE OUR PRECIOUS PLANET.