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The French Revolution. Four Stages. Moderate Stage (1789-92) Radical and Bloody Stage (1793-94) Reactionary Stage (1794-99) Napoleonic Era (1799-1815). Three Estates. Voting Procedures- Each Estate gets one Vote- Nobles and Church “nobles” typically ally with one another

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Four stages l.jpg
Four Stages

  • Moderate Stage (1789-92)

  • Radical and Bloody Stage (1793-94)

  • Reactionary Stage (1794-99)

  • Napoleonic Era (1799-1815)


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Three Estates

  • Voting Procedures- Each Estate gets one Vote-

    • Nobles and Church “nobles” typically ally with one another

  • Kings were not fond of the Estates General it was last called in 1614 (during Louis XIII reign) since they last were called to meet (remember how the English Kings stopped Parliament from meeting!!!)


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Three Estates

  • First Estate– “Noble” Clergy

    • 0.1% of population

    • 10% of land

    • No taxes – Gave 2% of their income to the government

    • Collected Tithe


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Second Estate

  • Second Estate– Nobility

    • 1.9% of population

    • Owned 20% of land

    • No taxes

    • Highest offices in army,

      government, and courts

      of law

    • “Born” into wealth


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Third Estate

  • Made up of 3 groups – First Class

    • Bourgeoisie

      • Strongly influenced by Enlightenment

      • Wealthy, self-made men with no say in gov’t.


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Third Estate

  • Third Estate– Second Class

    • Sans Culottes

      • Middle Class with no say in gov’t.

    • Corvee- applied to both second and third groups (work as tax)


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Third Estate

  • Third Estate – Third Class

    • Peasant Farmers

      • Made up 80% of population

      • Extremely poor

      • Paid 50% of taxes


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Corvee-

Every year, the law required peasants to work without pay on a government road


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Louis XVI was a weak ruler

  • Marie Antoinette, his wife, was unpopular b/c she was from an Austrian family

  • Louis was in debt because of the American Revolution

  • The nobles refused to pay taxes

  • Louis called a meeting of the estates in Versailles


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Louis XVI is in Debt

  • Reign started in 1774

  • Known as a weak and indecisive King

  • Spent money lavishly

  • France owed huge debts---Louie had to figure a way out of the debt, he wanted to tax the nobles----they had money and weren’t already severely taxed…but that didn’t work- Nobles demanded a meeting of the Estates General


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Estates General to National Assembly

  • Estates General meets in 1789 for first time since 1614

  • Third Estate demands equality in voting process


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The National Assembly took Power

  • The first and second estates expected to dominate the 3rd estate in 1789 as usual

  • Estates usually met separately and each had one vote

  • The 3rd estate demanded all estates meet together and have one vote

  • The king refused

  • The 3rd estate created the National Assembly


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3rd Estate- Rebels- leave the Estates General to create their own Government

  • Tennis Court Oath

    • Upset with their poor treatment in the Estates General the 3rd Estate led by Abbe Sieyes created a new government- the National Assembly

  • No more absolute King and no more Estates General----(maybe the Nobles should’ve just agreed to pay the tax!!!)

  • First act of Revolution



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Louis drops the ball– Enlightenment ideals we just studied?“Storming of the Bastille”

  • Bread prices now cost more than a day’s wages

  • The king tried to meet the demands of the 3rd Estate

  • He ordered Swiss guards to move toward Paris (he no longer trusted French military)

  • An angry mob turned on the Bastille Mobs storm the Bastille on July 14, 1789.

  • First violent Act of Revolution


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Bread Riots Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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Storming the Bastille Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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The Great Fear Swept France Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Rebellion spread all over France

  • Peasants banded together and demanded an end to high taxes and bread prices

  • They ransacked Versailles

  • Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were forced to leave Versailles for good


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The Assembly adopted many reforms Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • The assembly eliminated the privileges of the nobles

  • Passed the Rights of Man: “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”

  • A limited monarchy: the king was the executive, the national assembly was the legislative

  • A state run church: church lands given to govt. and church officials were to be elected by property owners – (peasants hate this)


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DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite

  • Assembly passes A FRENCH BILL OF RIGHTS

  • Right to

    • EQUAL JUSTICE

    • FREEDOM OF SPEECH

    • FREEDOM OF RELIGION

  • Today the universal

    Declaration of Human

    Rights traces its’ existence

    to the French Revolution


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Louis XVI tries to Escape Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • The king approved the constitution

  • He tries to escape to the Austrian Netherlands

  • He was recognized before reaching the border

  • He and his family are returned to Paris under guard

  • This influenced the radicals in the assembly and sealed Louis’ doom


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Legislative Assembly Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Replaced National Assembly in 1791

  • Political Spectrum emerges

    • Right (Loyal to the King)

    • Left (Radicals) wanted change, a Republic!

    • Center (conservatives, agree with both sides)


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Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

LEFT v. RIGHT

  • Members of the Legislative Assembly had different views

    • Radicals- Complete change- out with the old in with the new

    • Moderate- Some changes- but don’t change everything

  • In the Legislative Assembly

    • Radicals sat to the Left

    • Loyalists sat to the Right

  • Today- Radicals are known as Leftists and Conservatives are known as on the Right


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Radical and Bloody Stage (1793-94) Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Execution of Louis XVI

  • Robespierre

  • Reign of Terror


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READ ALL ABOUT - LATEST NEWS - 20 April 1792 Enlightenment ideals we just studied?PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA AT WAR WITH FRANCE!!!

  • Not happy about his sister’s situation, Marie Antoinette’s brother, Francis I of Austria threatens War with France

  • French Leftists see War as an opportunity to unite the country and spread the REVOLUTION

  • France declares War on Austria,

  • Prussia thereafter allies with Austria

  • French Conscription (the draft) begins- France will amass an Army of 800,000

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite


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“LOUIE AND MARIE MEET THEIR DEMISE” Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Earlier (1791) Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were discovered trying to flee France, under guard he was brought back

  • After Prussia and Austria go to war with France, a Mob attacked the Kings’ Paris Palace

  • Legislative Assembly (Government) officially got rid of Louis, later the National Convention ended the office of King

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite


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Louis XVI is beheaded Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • 1792, the mobs in the streets are ruling the country

  • Radical Group called the Jacobins emerges and leads the call for a Republic

  • The Monarchy is abolished

  • Louis XVI is tried for treason

    and found guilty

  • Louis XVI is beheaded

    by guillotine


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The Guillotine Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Thousands die by the guillotine

    • King and Queen

    • Priests resisting govt. control

    • Rivals of the Jacobins


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France created a citizen army Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • The radicals eliminated the constitutional monarchy

  • Britain, Spain, Portugal, Austria, and Prussia formed a coalition

  • France drafted army of 800,000 men to meet this challenge in 1794

  • The French army was made up of citizens not mercenaries


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The rise of Maximilien Robespierre Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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Robespierre Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Known as “the incorruptible”

  • Wanted to wipe all traces of the monarchy

  • Replaced the kings, queens, and jacks in decks of cards with liberty, equality, and fraternity.

  • He formed the Committee of Public Safety


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Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

Committee of Public Safety-Robespierre, Marat and Danton

Committee of Public Safety

-Created to watch over (spy) on people to MAKE SURE EVERYONE IS ACTING “PROPERLY”

Why so terrifying?

-MANY OF THOSE KILLED PREVIOUSLY SUPPORTED THE REVOLUTION

MONARCHS, NOBLES, CHURCH GOERS AND EVEN THE BOURGEOISIE ARE APPALLED AT THE REIGN OF TERROR

MARAT STABBED TO DEATH, DANTON ACCUSED BY THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY IS EXECUTED…


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Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

Reign of Terror

A REPUBLIC OF VIRTUE

RADICALS DEMAND COMPLETE CHANGE-

-NOBLES FRIGHTENED FOR THEIR LIVES ESCAPE FRANCE

-PRIESTS AND CLERGY ARE KILLED-

-MARIE ANTOINETTE KILLED

-CHURCHES CHANGED TO MUSEUMS

-A NEW CALENDAR!!!


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The Terror Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • The Committee of Public Safety judged not just monarchists, but anyone not as radical as Robespierre

  • Anywhere from 3,000 to 40,000 people were killed

  • 80% were from the Third Estate, whom the revolution had been started for


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Reactionary Stage (1794-99) Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Robespierre is beheaded

  • The Directory is formed with right-wing beliefs, two legislative houses, and an executive branch of five members

  • A period of calm

  • A great General rules the French Army


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Moderates Ruled in the Directory Enlightenment ideals we just studied?1795

  • People were sick of the terror

  • The National Convention drafted another Constitution, the third since 1789

  • The Directory was 5 moderate men who ran France, they were corrupt, but people did not mind as much b/c the terror was over.


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Question to Ponder: Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

What is the relationship between the political philosophes of the Enlightenment to the French Revolution?


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NAPOLEON Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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1795-1799 Enlightenment ideals we just studied?OBSCURITY TO MASTERY

  • 1796: Bonaparte appointed to lead the French army against Austria and Sardinia in Italy

    • swift victories; control of Italy and Switzerland

  • November 10, 1799

    • Coup d’etat

    • Constitution of the Year

    • Napoleon named 1st Consul


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Napoleon becomes Emperor Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • At first Napoleon pretended to be the leader of a free republic

  • He then held a plebiscite.

  • The people voted to make Napoleon consul for life (1802)

  • In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor


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PLEBISCITE MAKES NAPOLEON EMPEROR Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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Policies Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Economic Order

    • Slowed inflation/ People could afford bread

    • Set up a National Bank

  • Social Order

    • People promoted on merit not on blood-line

  • Religious Order

    • Napoleon signs Concordat (settlement) with Pope

    • Catholics favored in France, but not total dominance

  • Legal Order– Napoleonic Code


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NAPOLEONIC CODE Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Gave France a single set of laws

  • Abolished the 3 estates of the old regime

  • Equality under the law

  • Limited liberty

    • censorship

    • women lost right to own property

    • slavery restored in French colonies

    • None of the laws applied to Napoleon!


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Napoleon Battles to Dominate Europe Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • 3rd Coalition: Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia

  • Led numerous battles from 1805-1807 that almost led to French domination of Europe

  • Napoleon’s Empire included all of Western Europe and beyond

  • Despite great success on land, the loss of the naval battle of Trafalgar to British proves fateful


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NAPOLEON’S SIBLINGS Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

  • Joseph…King of Naples and Spain

    • Louis , King of Holland

  • Lucien, Prince of Canino


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    Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

    Continental System

    Peninsular War

    Russian Invasion


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    Continental System Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

    • Blockade of British shipping and goods

    • Attempt to strengthen the continental countries of Europe

    • Britain responded with their own blockade

    • Continental System weakened the economies of continental Europe

    • Policy hurt Napoleon more than his enemies


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    Peninsular War– Spanish Guerillas Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

    • Napoleon attempted to make his brother King of Spain

    • Nationalism was on the rise throughout Europe due to Napoleon’s conquest of the continent

    • Spanish guerillas killed almost 300,000 French soldiers


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    Guerillas fight Napoleon in Spain Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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    Russian Invasion Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

    • Russia refused to participate in the blockade of Britain

    • 1812, Napoleon attacked Russia with 400,000

    • Majority of Army was not French, and had little loyalty to Napoleon

    • Scorched Earth Policy destroyed Napoleon’s army and left him with only 10,000 survivors

    • Napoleon retreats


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    Scorched Earth Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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    December 1812 Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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    Grand Alliance Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

    • Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden joined forces

    • Napoleon was weak

    • Napoleon lost the Battle of Leipzig

    • He is exiled to the small island of Elba, but escapes to rally within 9 months


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    Waterloo Enlightenment ideals we just studied?


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    Final Defeat Enlightenment ideals we just studied?

    • Last attempt to retake France fails and he is exiled to St. Helena