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Stress and Coping. Presented by Mrs. Tess Leones. Lecture Objectives. 1. To know the basic facts about stress and its sources. 2. To understand the effects of stress in our life. 3. To identify and learn different coping strategies. DOH Facts about Stress.

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stress and coping

Stress and Coping

Presented by Mrs. Tess Leones

lecture objectives
Lecture Objectives

1. To know the basic facts about stress and its sources.

2. To understand the effects of stress in our life.

3. To identify and learn different coping strategies

doh facts about stress
DOH Facts about Stress
  • 75-90% of visits to physicians are stress-related
  • Stress-related disorders are a major cause of rapidly increasing health care costs.
  • According to the World Health organization (WHO), by year 2020, five (5) of the top ten medical problems world-wide will be stress-related
doh facts about stress4
DOH Facts about Stress

Stress is a major cause of

  • Low productivity
  • High absenteeism
  • Misallocation of resources
  • Poor morale, which may lead to suicide.
stress is derived from the latin word stringi which translates as to be drawn tight
Stress is derived from the Latin word “Stringi” which translates as “to be drawn tight.”
  • That state of increased arousal necessary for an organism to defend itself at a time of danger.
  • The “wear and tear” our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment.
  • A dynamic state of imbalance in response to demand, threat, or unmet needs.
sources of stress stressors
Sources of Stress (Stressors)

1. Stress of change:

-major life changes like starting a new job

-getting married

-moving to a new house

sources of stress stressors8
Sources of Stress (Stressors)
  • Environmental



-Natural disasters


sources of stress stressors9
Sources of Stress (Stressors)

3. Family and Relationships

-Marital Conflicts

-Disagreement with Other Persons

-Stress of Bereavement

sources of stress stressors10
Sources of Stress (Stressors)

4. Occupational/Work Stresses

-Loss of job and mounting bills

-Long work hours

-Short-term contracts

-Task demands


stress symptoms physical
Stress Symptoms: Physical
  • headaches (often termed tension headaches)
  • palpitations
  • skin problems/ rashes
  • sleep problems
  • high blood pressure
  • indigestion
  • muscle twitches (tics)
  • colds/ flu
  • increased bowelmovements (nervous diarrhea)
  • excessive sweating (palms/ armpits)
stress symptoms emotional psychological
Stress Symptoms: Emotional/Psychological
  • sadness
  • irritability
  • nervousness
  • mood swings
  • depression (common pathway to prolonged periods of stress)
  • angry outburst
  • negative thoughts, including suicidal ones
  • nightmares
stress symptoms behavioral
Stress Symptoms: Behavioral
  • decreased productivity
  • poor appetite resulting in weight loss.
  • overeating (bulimia)
  • self-care is neglected
  • social activities curtailed
  • substance abuse-- excessive alcohol or cigarette smoking
  • excessive day-dreaming
stress symptoms cognitive
Stress Symptoms: Cognitive
  • trouble concentrating
  • forgetfulness
  • poor memory and recall
  • increased number of errors
  • difficulty making decisions, confusion
stress thermometer
Stress “Thermometer”

0 30 50 70 100

little moderate high extreme

stress stress stress stress


life change index scale
Life Change Index Scale

According to Dr. Thomas Holmes.

Utilizes an Index Number 1-100 for stress from different life events.

Dr. Thomas Holmes and his colleagues have shown a relationship between recent life changes and the onset of illness.
  • 0-149 No significant problem
  • 150-199 Mild life danger with 37% chance of illness
  • 200-299 Moderate life crisis level with a 51% chance of illness
  • 300+ Major life cricis level with a 79% chance of illness
stage 1 alarm
Stage 1: Alarm
  • Chemical substances called hormones are released into the blood in increased amounts.
  • Body is trying to ready itself to cope with a stressor.
stage 2 resistance
Stage 2: Resistance
  • Increased bodily activity to leave stressor or resist it.
stage 3 exhaustion
Stage 3: Exhaustion
  • If exposure to the stressor continues, the body loses its ability to adapt to the situation. The person's energy is depleted and the result is exhaustion.
  • Doctors believe that several kinds of illnesses may be caused by prolonged periods of stress.
NOTE: Almost no one is able to maintain a normal existence under continued high level of stress. When the stage of exhaustion lasts for a long period of time, it develops into “burnout”.
NOTE: If anyone is experiencing any of the following, consider seeing a doctor:

-Depression/ desperation

-Loss of appetite/ weight loss/


-One feels that life is not worth living.

-Feel overwhelmed by anxiety

-Loss of energy


stress management
Stress Management

A. Build your physical reserves because good health increases tolerance to stress.

-Eat well-balanced/nutritious foods

-Get enough rest and sleep

-Get enough exercise

-Avoid drugs such as tobacco and alcohol. They contribute to wear and tear on the body.

-Take a warm bath/shower before going to sleep.

-Avoid caffeine

stress management27
Stress Management

B. Maintain and strengthen your emotional reserves. Have a network of friends and family to provide a support system in terms of:

-tangible assistance

-giving information

-emotional support

  • NOTE: Physical contact like a hug is a great stress buster.
stress management28
Stress Management

C. LOL (laugh out loud). A good laugh reduces the level of stress hormone cortisol, and epinephrine and boosts immunity

stress management29
Stress Management

D. Stress Innoculation. A good amount of stress comes from the irrational and self-defeating beliefs about oneself. If you can remove them from your system, it helps you to develop some kind of “immunity” against uselessness.

stress management31
Stress Management
  • E. Avoid crowding activities into a short period of time.
    • Learn to priorize tasks.
    • One step at a time.
    • Do not expect too much of yourself.
    • Delegate some tasks if there are other responsible people who can help you. “We are not superheroes!”.
    • Learn to say “NO”
stress management32
Stress Management

F. Learn to relax.

  • Plan restful vacations once in a while.
  • Schedule regular recreation into your life.
  • Take on a hobby (“All work and no play makes Juan a dull boy!”)
Follow your bliss.
  • Listen to sweet music
  • Gardening, if you enjoy it.
  • Go to spa for a massage
  • Treat yourself to a beauty parlor (girls)
  • Shop for things you like (stress buster)
  • Meditate and/or do yoga
  • Go ballroom dancing
  • Travel (take a short trip if money is the problem)
  • Use “de-stress visualization/relaxation” exercises
de stress visualizaiton relaxation exercises
De-stress Visualizaiton/ Relaxation Exercises?
  • Sit in a quiet corner of your room. Close your eyes.
  • Imagine you are in a dream vacation mountain get-away, on top of the Eiffel Tower, Great Wall of China, Boracay, Cruse ship.
  • Hold the thought for 10 minutes and see your self happy
  • Stress is unavoidable.
  • Not all stress is bad. “Spice of Life”
  • Life with no stress would be BORING.
  • “Eustress” versus “Distress”
When or should all the coping strategies I had discussed with you fail, Let God... Rest in Him... for He said, “Come to Me you who are weary and I will give you rest.”
stress and coping37

Stress and Coping

Presented by Mrs. Tess Leones