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Societies at Crossroads. Societies at Crossroads. Four Empires at turning points by the 19 th century—3 declining, one rising The Ottoman Empire (in decline) Russia (in decline) China (in decline) Japan (on the rise) What do they have in common? What made Japan different from the others?.

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societies at crossroads2
Societies at Crossroads
  • Four Empires at turning points by the 19th century—3 declining, one rising
    • The Ottoman Empire (in decline)
    • Russia (in decline)
    • China (in decline)
    • Japan (on the rise)
  • What do they have in common?
  • What made Japan different from the others?
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • Recap of the Ottoman Empire
    • Beginning of Decline
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • Reasons for decline
      • Political instability
      • Nationalism
      • Cultural stagnation
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • Political decline led to loss of territory
      • Invasion of Egypt by Napoleon in 1798
      • Civil War in the 1820s
      • Greek Revolution 1830
      • Serbian independence in 1867
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • Economic Problems
      • Capitulations
      • Unmanageable Bureaucracy
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • Attempts at Reform by Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839)
    • Tanzimat Era (1839-1876)
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • A coup in 1876 places Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909) on the throne
    • Young Turks
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • Nationalist movements tear empire apart
    • The “Eastern Question”
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Russian Empire
    • Stretched from Europe to the Pacific
    • Absolute monarchy under the Czar
    • Lagged far behind other European powers
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Russian Empire
    • Military defeats expose Russia’s weaknesses
      • Crimean War (1854-56)
        • Causes
        • Consequences
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Russian Empire
    • Defeat from Crimean War prompted abolition of serfdom
    • Other Reforms
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Russian Empire
    • Industrialization
      • Motivation
      • Count Sergei Witte
      • Tensions
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Russian Empire
    • International Crises
    • Revolution of 1905
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Chinese Empire
    • A technological leader during the 1500s
    • Began its decline in the 19th century
    • Spheres of Influence
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Chinese Empire
    • Chinese Market
    • Restriction of European Trade
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Chinese Empire
    • Growth of Opium Trade
    • Effects of Opium Trade
    • The Opium War (1839-42)
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Chinese Empire
    • Treaty of Nanjing
    • “Era of Unequal Treaties”
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Chinese Empire
    • Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
      • Causes
      • Consequences
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Chinese Empire
    • Attempts at Reform
      • “Self Strengthening Movement” (1860-1895)
      • “Hundred Days’ Reform” (1898)
    • Opposition to Reform
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Societies at Crossroads
  • The Chinese Empire
    • Unequal Treaties causes resentment among Chinese
      • Boxer Rebellion (1899)
      • Revolution of 1911
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Societies at Crossroads
  • Japan
    • Isolation
    • Tokugawa Shogunate
    • Social discontent by the early 1800s
    • European powers and the United States desire normal relations with Japan by the 1840s
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Societies at Crossroads
  • Japan
    • Matthew Perry’s Visit
    • Opening to Trade
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Societies at Crossroads
  • Japan
    • Decline of Tokugawa Shogunate
    • Meiji Restoration (1868)
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Societies at Crossroads
  • Japan
    • Meiji government reorganizes Japanese society
      • Goals
      • Reforms
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Societies at Crossroads
  • Japan
    • Emergence of Japan
    • Adoption of Imperialism