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Introduction to HCI

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  1. Introduction to HCI Monday April 6th

  2. For today . . . • Atomic Chef—”Titanic’s Wake,” Tom Kujala, Brian Lewis, and Emelie Hegarty • I received a video • Let’s talk about prototypes and scenarios • Let’s look at performance based testing • Be sure to sign up for prototype-presentation spots

  3. The Atomic Chef”Titanic’s Wake,” Tom Kujala, Brian Lewis, and EmelieHegarty

  4. I received a video. It’s funny, but a little rough.You have about 45 seconds to leave the room if you want. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8AyVh1_vWYQ

  5. Prototypes

  6. Let’s Look at Prototypes (and rapid prototyping)

  7. Scenarios One method of “discount usability evaluation”

  8. Types of Prototypes Different Features Horizontal prototype Scenario Functions Full system Vertical prototype

  9. Scenarios: The Ultimate Minimalist Prototype • Describe a single interaction session with no flexibility for user • Combine limitations of both horizontal and vertical prototypes

  10. A Scenario is an Encapsulated Description of: • An individual user • Using a specific set of computer facilities • To achieve a specific outcome • Under specified circumstances • Over a certain time interval

  11. Design choices Thinking about ways to make your prototype work for your audience

  12. Say, for example, that part of your interface used three buttons Start Record Stop

  13. If you found that your audience was made up of older people, you might increase font size Start Record Stop

  14. If you determined that your audience might need some help Start Record Stop

  15. If you determined that they might need some more help Start entering data Record information in database Stop entering data

  16. If the audience was kids Go Do it Stop

  17. Producing Faster Prototypes • Place less emphasis on efficiency. • Accept less reliable or poorer quality code. • Use simplified algorithms. • Wizard of Oz study. • Use a different computer system than the final platform. • Use low-fidelity media • Use fake data and other content. • Use paper mock-ups. • Use an imaginary (verbal) prototype.

  18. Performance-Based Usability Testing Users perform tasks; we observe what they do

  19. Selecting Tasks to Test • Most frequently done tasks • Most important or critical tasks • Most complex tasks

  20. Method • Tell users what you want them to do • Make sure they are familiar with the equipment and procedures • Make sure they know that they are not on trial and can leave at any time • Be unobtrusive • Record observations; debrief them at the end

  21. What Can Be Observed • Objective measures • Subjective measures

  22. Objective Measures • Success or failure • Time to complete • Number of errors made • Pages or Help screens referred to • Calls to a Help Desk

  23. Subjective Measures • Apparent satisfaction • Confusion • Anger and frustration

  24. Talk-Aloud Protocols Sometimes called “Think-Aloud Protocols”

  25. Method • People are asked to perform a task • While they are performing it, they say out loud what they are thinking • Test coordinator records what is said • After they are done, they may be asked additional questions

  26. Benefits • You can learn where and why people get confused • People may offer a solution within their thought process • You can get a lot of information

  27. Drawbacks • Not everyone is good at doing something and talking about it at the same time • People will not want to appear stupid • If it doesn’t work, it usually fails Big Time

  28. Developing Questionnaires Post-test questionnaires Surveys--on-line or in-person

  29. Questionnaires • A chance to gather additional information • A chance to do follow-up questioning • An opportunity to waste time and appear foolish

  30. Some Guidelines • Don’t ask questions for which you already know the answer • Don’t ask questions that would be better asked by observation • Make sure questions are fairly stated (neutral) • Don’t ask for too much of people’s time

  31. Types of Questions • Multiple choice • Likert scale • Open-ended A mixture of types is usually good

  32. Multiple Choice • People select from a limited set of choices (yes/no, 0-2/3-5/more than 5) • Make sure choices are mutually exclusive and clear • Make sure questions are meaningful

  33. Likert Scale • On a scale of 1 to . . . . • Odd/even number of choices? • Balance around the mid-point • Meaningful labels for numbers

  34. Open-ended Questions • A chance to get additional information and opinions • Allow enough space for answers • Make sure your questions are clear and unambiguous

  35. ? Shall we try one

  36. A Performance-Based Test

  37. Preparing for the Test • Consider www.rpi.edu (and pages it links to) • Design a scenario to test the effectiveness and usability of the site (the choice of scenario is up to you—make it a good one) • Design an observation sheet of things you will observe • Design a debriefing questionnaire

  38. Conducting the Test • We’ll select several groups • Each, in turn, will conduct the test at the front of the room • We’ll all observe the test and learn from our observations

  39. Each Group Will . . . • Conduct the test • Hold a debriefing • Tell us what they observed • Share some preliminary thoughts on applying the results of the test

  40. Testing Time

  41. On Thursday . . . We’ll talk about prototypes and hear from Sean McLoughlin and Brendan Cass about “Driven to Distraction?

  42. Go forth and perform