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Quantitative Research Design . Backdrop to Multivariate Analysis. Quantitative Research Process. Research Objectives Background of the Problem Research Questions Hypotheses Method Data Analysis Discussions and Implications Limitations. Research Proposal.

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quantitative research design

Quantitative Research Design

Backdrop to Multivariate Analysis

quantitative research process
Quantitative Research Process
  • Research Objectives
  • Background of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Hypotheses
  • Method
  • Data Analysis
  • Discussions and Implications
  • Limitations
research proposal
Research Proposal
  • A written statement of the research design
  • Including the purpose of the study, definition of the problem, research methodology and details of the procedures
  • Sampling terminology
    • Sample
    • Population
    • Population element
    • Census
  • Why sample?
    • Pragmatic reasons
    • Accurate and reliable results
probability versus nonprobability sampling
Probability versus Nonprobability Sampling
  • Probability sampling
    • Simple random sampling
    • Systematic sampling
    • Stratified sampling
    • Proportional versus disproportional strata
    • Cluster sampling
    • Multistage area sampling
  • Nonprobability sampling
    • Convenience sampling
    • Judgment sampling (purposive sampling)
    • Quota sampling
    • Snowball sampling
sample size
Sample Size
  • Confidence level
  • Categorical (classificatory) variable
  • Continuous variable
  • Dummy variable
  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
tips for questionnaire design
Tips for Questionnaire Design
  • Two basic criteria
    • Relevance
    • Accuracy
  • Opened-ended v.s. fixed-alternative questions
  • Types of fixed-alternative questions (mutually exclusive)
    • Dichotomous-alternative question
    • Determinant-choice question
    • Frequency-determination question
    • Checklist question
the art of asking questions
The Art of Asking Questions
  • Avoid complexity: use simple language
  • Avoid leading and loaded questions
    • Counterbiasing statement
    • Split-ballot technique
  • Avoid ambiguity: be as specific as possible
  • Avoid double-barreled items
  • Avoid making assumptions
  • Avoid burdensome questions that may tax the respondent’s memory
some issues about questionnaire design
Some Issues about Questionnaire Design
  • Order Bias
    • Funnel technique
    • Anchoring effect
    • Filter question
    • Pivot question
  • Best Layout
    • Multiple-grid question
  • Pre-testing and Revising
survey research
Survey Research
  • Advantages of survey research:
    • Quick
    • Inexpensive
    • Efficient
    • Accurate
survey research12
Survey Research












Extremity bias



Interviewer bias

Total Error

Auspices bias








Data processing error

Sample selection error



Interviewer error

Interviewer cheating

experimental research
Experimental Research
  • A research investigation in which conditions are controlled so that an independent variable(s) can be manipulated to test a hypothesis about a dependent variable.
  • Allows evaluation of causal relationships among variables while all other variables are eliminated or controlled.
basic issues in experimental design
Basic Issues in Experimental Design
  • Manipulation of the independent variable
  • Experimental treatments
  • Experimental and control groups
  • Experimental treatment levels
  • More than one independent variable
  • Selection and measurement of the dependent variable
  • Demand characteristics
  • Debriefing (ethical issue)
experimental validity
Experimental Validity
  • External validity (generalizability)
  • Internal validity
    • The ability of an experiment to answer the question of whether an experimental treatment was the sole cause of changes in a dependent variable or whether the experimental manipulation did what it was supposed to do.
    • History
    • Maturation
    • Testing
    • Instrumentation
    • Selection
    • Mortality
measurement types of scales
Measurement– types of scales
  • Nominal scale
    • Frequency in each category
    • Percentage in each category
  • Ordinal scale (rank order)
    • Median
    • Range
    • Percentile ranking
  • Interval scale (rank order in equal intervals)
    • Mean
    • Standard deviation
    • Variance
  • Ratio scale (arithmetic operations on actual quantities)
    • Geometric mean
    • Coefficient of variation

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(low reliability) (high reliability) (reliable but not valid)

reliability analysis
Reliability Analysis
  • Cronbach’s alpha cofficeint (Cronbach, 1951)
  • Refer to the applicability of obtained scored as an estimate of “true” scores if all possible tests or all possible scores were available
  • What is acceptable reliability?
    • 0.85 or higher
    • Depends on the numbers of item and the situation