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Quantitative Research Design . Backdrop to Multivariate Analysis. Quantitative Research Process. Research Objectives Background of the Problem Research Questions Hypotheses Method Data Analysis Discussions and Implications Limitations. Research Proposal.

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quantitative research design

Quantitative Research Design

Backdrop to Multivariate Analysis

quantitative research process
Quantitative Research Process
  • Research Objectives
  • Background of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Hypotheses
  • Method
  • Data Analysis
  • Discussions and Implications
  • Limitations
research proposal
Research Proposal
  • A written statement of the research design
  • Including the purpose of the study, definition of the problem, research methodology and details of the procedures
sampling
Sampling
  • Sampling terminology
    • Sample
    • Population
    • Population element
    • Census
  • Why sample?
    • Pragmatic reasons
    • Accurate and reliable results
probability versus nonprobability sampling
Probability versus Nonprobability Sampling
  • Probability sampling
    • Simple random sampling
    • Systematic sampling
    • Stratified sampling
    • Proportional versus disproportional strata
    • Cluster sampling
    • Multistage area sampling
  • Nonprobability sampling
    • Convenience sampling
    • Judgment sampling (purposive sampling)
    • Quota sampling
    • Snowball sampling
sample size
Sample Size
  • Confidence level
variables
Variables
  • Categorical (classificatory) variable
  • Continuous variable
  • Dummy variable
  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
tips for questionnaire design
Tips for Questionnaire Design
  • Two basic criteria
    • Relevance
    • Accuracy
  • Opened-ended v.s. fixed-alternative questions
  • Types of fixed-alternative questions (mutually exclusive)
    • Dichotomous-alternative question
    • Determinant-choice question
    • Frequency-determination question
    • Checklist question
the art of asking questions
The Art of Asking Questions
  • Avoid complexity: use simple language
  • Avoid leading and loaded questions
    • Counterbiasing statement
    • Split-ballot technique
  • Avoid ambiguity: be as specific as possible
  • Avoid double-barreled items
  • Avoid making assumptions
  • Avoid burdensome questions that may tax the respondent’s memory
some issues about questionnaire design
Some Issues about Questionnaire Design
  • Order Bias
    • Funnel technique
    • Anchoring effect
    • Filter question
    • Pivot question
  • Best Layout
    • Multiple-grid question
  • Pre-testing and Revising
survey research
Survey Research
  • Advantages of survey research:
    • Quick
    • Inexpensive
    • Efficient
    • Accurate
survey research12
Survey Research

Nonresponse

error

Acquiescence

bias

Respondent

error

Random

sampling

error

Deliberate

falsification

Extremity bias

Response

bias

Interviewer bias

Total Error

Auspices bias

Unconscious

misrepresentation

Social

desirability

bias

Systematic

error

Data processing error

Sample selection error

Administrator

error

Interviewer error

Interviewer cheating

experimental research
Experimental Research
  • A research investigation in which conditions are controlled so that an independent variable(s) can be manipulated to test a hypothesis about a dependent variable.
  • Allows evaluation of causal relationships among variables while all other variables are eliminated or controlled.
basic issues in experimental design
Basic Issues in Experimental Design
  • Manipulation of the independent variable
  • Experimental treatments
  • Experimental and control groups
  • Experimental treatment levels
  • More than one independent variable
  • Selection and measurement of the dependent variable
  • Demand characteristics
  • Debriefing (ethical issue)
experimental validity
Experimental Validity
  • External validity (generalizability)
  • Internal validity
    • The ability of an experiment to answer the question of whether an experimental treatment was the sole cause of changes in a dependent variable or whether the experimental manipulation did what it was supposed to do.
    • History
    • Maturation
    • Testing
    • Instrumentation
    • Selection
    • Mortality
measurement types of scales
Measurement– types of scales
  • Nominal scale
    • Frequency in each category
    • Percentage in each category
  • Ordinal scale (rank order)
    • Median
    • Range
    • Percentile ranking
  • Interval scale (rank order in equal intervals)
    • Mean
    • Standard deviation
    • Variance
  • Ratio scale (arithmetic operations on actual quantities)
    • Geometric mean
    • Coefficient of variation
reliability
Reliability

Old Rifle New Rifle New Rifle Sunglare

(low reliability) (high reliability) (reliable but not valid)

reliability analysis
Reliability Analysis
  • Cronbach’s alpha cofficeint (Cronbach, 1951)
  • Refer to the applicability of obtained scored as an estimate of “true” scores if all possible tests or all possible scores were available
  • What is acceptable reliability?
    • 0.85 or higher
    • Depends on the numbers of item and the situation