Protein Overview • What is a protein? • Why do you need protein? • Main job responsibilities • How does a protein food become a part of you? • How much protein do you need? • How to build muscle during strength training • Benefits of soy • Excess protein
What is a protein? • Where is protein found? • Animal and plant foods • How are proteins made? • Amino acids linked together • Amino acids are basic building block of all proteins • 20 types of amino acids • Essential (9) – must be supplied by food • Nonessential (11) – can be made in the body
Amino Acids • Proteins are sequences of amino acids • 20 amino acids
Complete & Incomplete Proteins • A complete protein contains all 9 essential amino acids (animal protein & soy) • All plant proteins (except soy) are incomplete proteins - low in 1 of the 9 essential amino acids • By complimenting plant foods, you will provide all 9 essential amino acids
100 “LEFT TURN ONLY” Signs • Mr.Grain is limited with 20 L’s • Ms. Legume has 250 L’s but limited with 50 T’s • Can only make complete signs (complete proteins) , not partial signs (no partial proteins).
Why do you need protein? • Growth, Repair & Replacement of Tissue • Main job is to build muscle, bone, skin and hair • Protect you from illness • Antibodies are made from protein • Enzymes & Hormones • Insulin - made from protein • Fluid Balance • Edema – swelling from a build up of fluid between cells • Energy
How does eating protein become a part of YOU? • Stomach • Hydrochloric acid and pepsin begin breaking down bonds of amino acids • Small intestine • Most digestion occurs in small intestine. • Amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream • Allergic reactions occur when partial proteins are absorbed • Proteins in peanuts, egg, milk, soy and wheat most common allergens
How much protein do YOU need? • RDA is .8 grams x kilogram of body weight (kg = lbs divided by 2.2) • Many nutritionists suggest 1–1.5 gram x kg of body wt. • What are the best proteins? • Lean meats (chicken, turkey, fish) • Low-fat dairy • Soy (preferably organic) • Complimentary plant foods
Your Protein Needs • Figure out how many grams of protein is right for you each day. • Your weight (lbs) divided by 2.2 = kilograms • RDA =.8 grams/kg body weight • Gigi recommends 1 gram/kg body weight • Athletes need 1.2-1.5 grams/kg body weight
Strength Training • To build muscle consume 25-35 grams of carbs and 6-12 grams of protein • Carbs and protein 1 hour before strength training promotes greatest muscle gain • Carbs and protein < 30 minutes after also promotes muscle gain but to a lesser degree • Studies show: 2/3 more amino acids (protein) delivered to leg muscle when drink consumed before exercise vs. after exercise
Rational • Increase in blood flow delivers amino acids to muscle • Greater amino acid uptake by muscle promotes production • Insulin from carbs enhances muscle production
What happens to extra calories from protein? • The excess calories are stored as fat in our fat tissue (adipose), NOT our muscle.
Are there risks to eating a high proteiN diet? • Excessive nitrogen needs to be excreted • Large amounts of nitrogen over a long period of time may strain kidneys • Do not go on high protein diet (>50% calories from protein) if kidney disease or diabetes • Potential for dehydration • Loss of fluids in urea • If consuming a high protein diet • Drink plenty of water
What we know (& don’t know) about soy • Heart Disease • Decreases LDL (bad cholesterol) by 13% for people with high cholesterol (>225) • Approximately 47 grams/day needed for benefit • 1 cup of soy milk = 7 grams of protein • Breast Cancer • 18 observational studies have shown that women who consume larger amounts of soy have 15% less risk of breast cancer • Osteoporosis, Menopause and Mental Capacity • Not enough quality research • Men • 2008 study (one study) found over weight and obese men who consumed soy daily (equiv of 1 c soy milk) had decreased sperm count.